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Virtual Knowledge Studio (VKS). Information Studies. detecting and analysing emotion in social network sites. MySpace comments case study. Mike Thelwall Statistical Cybermetrics Research Group University of Wolverhampton, UK. research motivation.

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detecting and analysing emotion in social network sites

Virtual Knowledge Studio (VKS)

Information Studies

detecting and analysing emotion in social network sites

MySpace comments

case study

Mike Thelwall

Statistical Cybermetrics Research Group

University of Wolverhampton, UK

research motivation
research motivation
  • sentiment is a frequently overlooked key factor in communication and relationships
  • needs to be investigated to understand the role of sentiment in new online environments
    • identify suicide “at risk”
    • discover emotional factors necessary for sustained online environments
    • modify bots to detect and react appropriately to emotional communication
talk structure
talk structure
  • part 1: background information about MySpace comment communication
  • part 2: automatically detecting sentiment in MySpace comments
slide5

MySpace comments are

public or semi-public

short messages

exchanged by Friends

but what is their purpose

and what do they look like?

comments
comments
  • Displayed in public on home page – public personal messages
purpose 1 gossip 53 of dialogs examples of gossip comments
purpose 1: gossip (53% of dialogs) – examples of gossip comments
  • I moved to Houston, Tx.
  • I come home at the beginning of July
  • well i just diyed my hair nearly black!!
  • i regret not going to UMSX bc MZU is so much harder
  • i sooo messed up :((
  • for a white guy tim knows a lot of rap song
  • Tina talks about you all the time.
  • Nigel said you were feeling bad
purpose 2 coordination of offline activities 18 of dialogs
purpose 2: coordination of offline activities (18% of dialogs)
  • CALL ME WHEN YOU GET A CHANCE
  • hey text me sometime.. [number]
  • i hope to see you toniiite <3
  • I'm gonna be in ABD in Jan. for like a week, we gotta hang out
  • Hey I can call you 2day?!!

purpose 3: keeping in contact

emotion in myspace
emotion in MySpace
  • how important is emotion expression in social network communication?
  • who uses emotion and what type of emotion?
emotion in friend comments
emotion in Friend comments
  • most comments contain positive emotion (including formal expressions, such as “Love, Sue” or “raj x”)
  • few contain negative emotion

Emotion strength in 819

random comments

emotion in friend comments1
emotion in Friend comments
  • positive emotion mainly used by females and mainly directed at females
  • no gender difference in negative emotions

Average emotion strength in 819 random comments

slide12

Sentistrength

To identify and analyse

Collective Emotions

in Cyberspace

CYBEREMOTIONS = data gathering + complex systems methods + ICT outputs

common words in comments
common words in comments

Bold words are not in the top 100 for general British English, and italic words are not in the top 100 for general American English.

problem 2 swearing
problem 2: swearing
  • rife in MySpace
  • conveys positive and negative emotions
  • ignored by existing sentiment analysis methods
slide16
emphatic adverb/adjective OR adverbial booster OR premodifying intensifying negative adjective (36% of swearing)
  • and we r guna go to town again n make a ryt fuckin nyt of it again lol
  • see look i'm fucking commenting u back
  • lol and stop fucking tickleing me!!
  • Thanks for the party last night it was fucking good and you are great hosts.
  • That 50's rock and roll weekender was fucking mint!
  • yeah so me and sarah broke up and everythings fucking shit
personal insult referring to defined entity 28 of swearing
personal insult referring to defined entity (28% of swearing)
  • tehe i am sorry.. i m such a sleep deprived twat alot of the time! lol
  • Maxy is the soundest cunt in the world!!!!
  • 3rd? i thought i was your main man number one? Fucker
  • write bak cunt xxx
  • You evil cunt! Haha
  • lucky fuck
idiomatic set phrase or figurative extension of literal meaning 23 mostly male
idiomatic set phrase OR figurative extension of literal meaning (23%, mostly male)
  • think am gonna get him an album or summet fuck nows
  • got another copy of the reaction CD (will had fucked the last one lol)
  • qu'est ce que fuck?
  • what the fuck pubehead whos pete and why is this necicery mate
  • Heh long story.. cant be fucked to explain :D
sentistrength objective
SentiStrength objective
  • detect positive and negative emotion in MySpace comments
  • develop workarounds for lack of grammar and spelling
  • harness emotion expression forms unique to MySpace or CMC (e.g., :-) or haaappppyyy!!!)
  • classify each MySpace comment as positive 1-5 AND negative 1-5
  • apply to social issues
sentistrength algorithm
SentiStrength algorithm
  • spelling correction for repeated letters
    • Helllllo -> Hello (emphasis: llll)
  • list of +ve and -ve words with strengths (party from LIWC; includes swearing)
    • hate=-4, love =3
  • extra heuristics
    • emphasis acts to enhance + or – emotion
    • emotion words ignored in questions
    • take strongest +ve & -ve expression in whole comment
    • booster words (e.g., very, some)

http://sentistrength.wlv.ac.uk/

sentiment strength estimation example
sentiment strength estimation example
  • HEEEEEEEEY BUDDY!!!!!!!!
  • HEYBUDDY!
  • HEYBUDDY!

translation and extraction of emphasis

Look up words in

Sentiment strength

dictionary

+1

+1

1 +1=2

2 +1=3

overall – positive: 3, negative 1

sentistrength vs std classifiers
SentiStrength vs. std. classifiers

10-fold

cross-

validation

on 1041

human-

classified

comments

application evidence of emotion homophily in myspace
application - evidence of emotion homophily in MySpace
  • automatic analysis of sentiment in 2 million comments exchanged between MySpace friends
  • correlation of 0.227 for +ve emotion strength and 0.254 for –ve
  • people tend to use similar but not identical levels of emotion to their friends in messages
conclusions
conclusions
  • social network sites are a source of sentiment expressed in very informal language
  • can identify positive and negative sentiment with reasonable accuracy
  • applications:
    • identifying social trends
    • Identifying potential emotional “anomalies”
bibliography
bibliography
  • Thelwall, M., Buckley, K., Paltoglou, G., Cai, D. & Kappas, A. (under review). Sentiment strength detection in short informal text.
  • Thelwall, M., Wilkinson, D. & Uppal, S. (2010). Data mining emotion in social network communication: Gender differences in MySpace, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(1), 190-199.
  • Thelwall, M. (2008). Fk yea I swear: Cursing and gender in a corpus of MySpace pages, Corpora, 3(1), 83-107.
  • Thelwall, M. (2009). Homophily in MySpace,Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 60(2), 219-231.
  • Thelwall, M. (2009). Social network sites: Users and uses. In: M. Zelkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Computers 76. Amsterdam: Elsevier (pp. 19-73).
  • Thelwall, M. & Wilkinson, D. (2010). Public dialogs in social network sites: What is their purpose?, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 61(2), 392-404

http://www.cyberemotions.eu/snic.ppt

references 2
references 2
  • Gobron, S., Ahn, J., Paltoglou, G., Thelwall, M. & Thalmann, D. (in press). From sentence to emotion: A real-time three-dimensional graphics metaphor of emotions extracted from text. The Visual Computer: International Journal of Computer Graphics.
  • Thelwall, M. (2009). MySpace comments.Online Information Review, 33(1), 58-76.
  • Thelwall, M. (2008). Social networks, gender and friending: An analysis of MySpace member profiles, Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 59(8), 1321-1330.

http://www.danah.org/researchBibs/sns.html