Chapter 11 Notes

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Chapter 11 Notes . Section 1 - Pressure. Pressure - equal to the force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted. Pressure = force/area pressure units = pascal increase surface area, decrease pressure ice skates

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Chapter 11 Notes

Section 1 - Pressure
• Pressure - equal to the force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted.
• Pressure = force/area
• pressure units = pascal
• increase surface area, decrease pressure
• ice skates
• fluid - substance which can easily flow

Chapter 11

All of the forces exerted by the individual molecules in a fluid add together to make up the pressure exerted by the fluid.
• Balanced pressure - air pressure
• pressure at a given level in a fluid is the same in all directions
• air pressure decreases as elevation increases
• water pressure increases as depth increases

Chapter 11

Section 2 - Transmitting Pressure in a Fluid
• Pascal’s principle - When force is applied to a confined fluid, an increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid.

Chapter 11

Hydraulic System
• Multiplies a force by applying the force to a small surface area.
• The increase in pressure is then transmitted to another part of the confined fluid, which pushes on a larger surface area.
• Small force over small area results in a larger force exerted by a larger area at another place.
• Car brakes, repair shop lift, fire truck ladder

Chapter 11

Section 3 - Floating and Sinking
• Buoyant force - acts in an upward direction, against the force of gravity.
• Makes an object feel lighter
• Archimedes’ principle - the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object
• floating and sinking - pg. 362

Chapter 11

density = mass/volume units g/mL or g/cm3
• water density = 1 g/mL pg.363

Chapter 11

Bernoulli’s principle
• The pressure exerted by a moving stream of fluid is less than the pressure of the surrounding fluid.
• Air moves at different speeds above and below objects.
• Difference in pressure causes lift or downward force
• wings pg. 367

Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Vocabulary List
• Pressure
• Pascal’s principle
• hydraulic system
• buoyant force
• Archimedes’ principle
• Bernoulli’s principle

Chapter 11