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Today. Updates: Kenya and Chad Simulation: your country assignments The Cold War, 1948-1989/91 Causes of the Cold War Cuban Missile Crisis The Victims of the Cold War: Africa, Asia, Latin America End of Cold War. Levels of analysis. Where causes are found:

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Presentation Transcript
Today l.jpg
Today

  • Updates: Kenya and Chad

  • Simulation: your country assignments

  • The Cold War, 1948-1989/91

    • Causes of the Cold War

      • Cuban Missile Crisis

      • The Victims of the Cold War: Africa, Asia, Latin America

    • End of Cold War


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Levels of analysis

  • Where causes are found:

    • International level of analysis – third image

    • Domestic level of analysis – second image

    • Individual level of analysis – first image


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Realism

  • Neorealism or defensive realism

    • International level/third image

      • Anarchy as a structure of international politics

      • Power as a means to security

  • Classical realism or offensive realism

    • Individual level/first image

      • Human nature

      • Power as an end in itself


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Liberal Institutionalism

  • Institutionalism

    • International level/third image

      • Interdependence

  • Liberalism

    • Domestic level/second image

      • Business and other interest groups


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Identity/Idealism

  • Identity perspective

    • Focuses on how identities shape global politics

  • Idealism

    • Role of ideas and norms

  • Constructivism

    • Focuses on how actors perceive of their environment

  • Transnationalism

    • Role of NGOs/across all levels of analysis


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Keenan’s ‘long telegram’

Six points (written in 1946, Nau, p. 118/9)

  • Soviet Union was confrontational.

  • Insecurity drives Soviet aggression and expansion.

  • Soviet Union will expand its power globally.

  • Soviet Union will seek allies abroad.

  • US must contain Soviet expansion.

  • Victory will depend on improving U.S. society (civil rights), not on spreading our democratic ideas.

  • Which theory is closest to Keenan’s view?



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Realist account of the Cold War

Structural explanation (systemic/third/international level of analysis)

  • The power vacuum in Europe after WWII created a security dilemma and forced both nations to enter an arms race.

  • Classical/offensive realism (Nau, p. 121):

    • Communism as a global ideology

    • Capitalism as a global ideology


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    Adding nuclear weapons

    • MAD – Mutually Assured Destruction

    • The Cuban Missile Crisis

      • Soviet Union: Cuba as the equivalent of Western Europe (close to the enemy territory)

      • Soviet Union: Trading Berlin for Cuba

      • Nuclear weapons transform world politics by focusing attention on credibility, rather than ability. Risk of total destruction increases.

    • Why the crisis ended

      • Realism: because the US threatened credibly with total destruction.

      • Liberal institutionalism: trade of interests (Turkey)

      • Identity/Idealism: pure luck that both sides came to their senses



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    Adding Identity

    • World politics is not just about material capabilities, rational interest calculation, and economic interdependence.

      • A struggle for the values of common humanity

        • Common human survival in the face of nuclear destruction

        • Fundamental struggle between capitalism and socialism

    • What ended the Cold War?

      • Emerging common framework of understanding

      • Gorbachev factor: shift in ideologies


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