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Today. Updates: Kenya and Chad Simulation: your country assignments The Cold War, 1948-1989/91 Causes of the Cold War Cuban Missile Crisis The Victims of the Cold War: Africa, Asia, Latin America End of Cold War. Levels of analysis. Where causes are found:

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today
Today
  • Updates: Kenya and Chad
  • Simulation: your country assignments
  • The Cold War, 1948-1989/91
    • Causes of the Cold War
      • Cuban Missile Crisis
      • The Victims of the Cold War: Africa, Asia, Latin America
    • End of Cold War
levels of analysis
Levels of analysis
  • Where causes are found:
    • International level of analysis – third image
    • Domestic level of analysis – second image
    • Individual level of analysis – first image
realism
Realism
  • Neorealism or defensive realism
    • International level/third image
      • Anarchy as a structure of international politics
      • Power as a means to security
  • Classical realism or offensive realism
    • Individual level/first image
      • Human nature
      • Power as an end in itself
liberal institutionalism
Liberal Institutionalism
  • Institutionalism
    • International level/third image
      • Interdependence
  • Liberalism
    • Domestic level/second image
      • Business and other interest groups
identity idealism
Identity/Idealism
  • Identity perspective
    • Focuses on how identities shape global politics
  • Idealism
    • Role of ideas and norms
  • Constructivism
    • Focuses on how actors perceive of their environment
  • Transnationalism
    • Role of NGOs/across all levels of analysis
keenan s long telegram
Keenan’s ‘long telegram’

Six points (written in 1946, Nau, p. 118/9)

  • Soviet Union was confrontational.
  • Insecurity drives Soviet aggression and expansion.
  • Soviet Union will expand its power globally.
  • Soviet Union will seek allies abroad.
  • US must contain Soviet expansion.
  • Victory will depend on improving U.S. society (civil rights), not on spreading our democratic ideas.
  • Which theory is closest to Keenan’s view?
realist account of the cold war
Realist account of the Cold War

Structural explanation (systemic/third/international level of analysis)

    • The power vacuum in Europe after WWII created a security dilemma and forced both nations to enter an arms race.
  • Classical/offensive realism (Nau, p. 121):
    • Communism as a global ideology
    • Capitalism as a global ideology
adding nuclear weapons
Adding nuclear weapons
  • MAD – Mutually Assured Destruction
  • The Cuban Missile Crisis
    • Soviet Union: Cuba as the equivalent of Western Europe (close to the enemy territory)
    • Soviet Union: Trading Berlin for Cuba
    • Nuclear weapons transform world politics by focusing attention on credibility, rather than ability. Risk of total destruction increases.
  • Why the crisis ended
    • Realism: because the US threatened credibly with total destruction.
    • Liberal institutionalism: trade of interests (Turkey)
    • Identity/Idealism: pure luck that both sides came to their senses
adding identity
Adding Identity
  • World politics is not just about material capabilities, rational interest calculation, and economic interdependence.
    • A struggle for the values of common humanity
      • Common human survival in the face of nuclear destruction
      • Fundamental struggle between capitalism and socialism
  • What ended the Cold War?
    • Emerging common framework of understanding
    • Gorbachev factor: shift in ideologies