GEOPOLITICS. International relations from a geographical perspective. State. a state is an independent country (though the term indicates a part of a country in common speech) an independent country is afforded sovereignty by international laws, agreements, and precedents
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International relations from a geographical perspective
Lesotho and The Gambia
Exclave of Russia
Hint: discontinuities in formal culture regions often cause political problems
Multi-state & multiethnic political entity
Created & sustained by force
Holy Roman Empire
Thirty Years War was a religious war in Europe
Both ended with the Peace of Westphalia (1648)
Westphalian system: state is the highest entity (not religious affiliation); applied to Europe after this point, and to world in 1960s, ’70s and ‘80s
Outside Westphalian system until after WWI
Colonized areas outside Europe then granted independence to most of these between late 1700s and mid 20th c.
European & American dominance of poor countries
Military & political control
Cultural and economic dominance without overt use of force
Current US-dominated world system
Cold-war marked US rise to position of global power
Supranational Organizations and International Alliances
Etc.What’s bigger than a state?