Brown trout , Salmo trutta. Brook trout , Salvelinus fontinalis. Rainbow trout , Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fry, ~6 wk. Sac fry, alevin, <6 wk. Hatching. Fingerling, 6 mo. Adult 2-3 yr. Fish. Fish dominate the ______________ in most lakes, streams, rivers and estuaries.
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Sac fry, alevin, <6 wk
Fingerling, 6 mo
Adult 2-3 yr
Fish dominate the ______________ in most lakes, streams, rivers and estuaries.
except in mountain lakes where it is _____________ impossible for fish to pass upstream over large waterfalls that guard the lake;
except when ______________ has completely changed the natural balance.
Fish are masters of the turbulent water environment except for early _____________ life stages.
The chemical and biological features of littoral habitats is directly correlated with
Important aspects of the submerged vegetation that attract fish include:
Additionally, a rich ____________ layer coating most submerged vegetation feeds small juvenile fish
which use this vegetation as a refuge from ___________________.
Groups with little or no ___________ for seawater;
Groups usually ___________________
but with enough salt tolerance so that members can enter the ocean and
______________: diadromous fishes which spend most of their life in the sea and mature.
______________: diadromous fishes which spend most of their life in freshwater and go to sea as adults to breed.
Estuarine fishes that often and freely go between marine and freshwater,
Freshwater fishes are ________________ to their medium
If uncompensated, the inward diffusion would dilute the body fluids to the point that
The task of removing water is accomplished by the kidney.
The kidneys of freshwater fish are capable of excreting urine that is more _______________________.
Additional contribution to ion balance by the urinary bladder:
Although the concentration of salt in urine is low,
Salts are also lost by ____________ from the body.
Losses are balanced by __________ in food and by ________ absorption through the gills.
Temperature and _________________ also regulate fish distribution and habitat preferences.
There is a wide variety of thermal preferences both among species and __________________.
__________ often prefer temperatures that are several degrees warmer than adults of the same species.
These different thermal preferences act to
_________________with different thermal tolerances during summer stratification.
Thereby, the thermal preferences can either enhance or reduce _______________ for other resources
depending on whether they __________similar species in more limited areas
or separate ____________________.
Although in winter, many species move to deeper water,
____________________ due to the much lower levels of activity and feeding associated with reduced _____________________.
The hypolimnion initially becomes _________ in summer
and the ____________________ gradually rises through the season.
Meanwhile, the thermocline is descending (_________________ as surface layer warms).
Temperatures in the epilimnion and metalimnion can approach or ____________ limits,
while dissolved oxygen falls below usable concentrations (__________) in the hypolimnion.
Fish that are vulnerable to predation use a combination of
Reproductive strategies consist of reproductive traits that enable fish to leave some ________.
Traits that vary, include:
reproductive behavior, __________ timing,
___________, the number of times spawning occurs in the life of the female (parity)
1. Age groups represent the number of years a fish ____________
2. ____________: fish born in 1997 are members of the 1997 year class.
Fry and fingerling; variously defined, often with different meanings to different people, should not be used unless specifically defined.
_________ fishes: newly hatched.
Fish are often the only important large aquatic predators
and results of their __________________
Effect of fish on zooplankton __________________
1. pelagic fish, which feed in open water
_______________(shad, herring, whitefish, minnows) or piscivorous (mosquito fish, white bass), may also eat ________________
2. littoral, feed at ___________
Benthic and littoral feeding is more generalized and can include:
Some fish are ____________,
while others are very specialized in their selection of food.
This resource partitioning means that the fish eat only ______________ of the available food
and thus avoid too much _________________ with others.
Two species of trout: _______ trout (Salvelus fontinalis) and _________ trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)
Another example: In streams,
____________ or negative, (positive)
Dace have a swimbladder and continuously swim
____ may be expanded to form a relatively small sucker around the mouth (Gyrinocheilus)
The entire ______________ of the body acts as a sucker (Gastromyzon) both are members of Cyprinidae
They collect a large quantity of food from one rock before making a ________________ for another.
Distribution of fish is impacted by
Stream zones have been named for the _______________________ or associations found there.
Fishery studies involve:
Nylon nets: __________, gill nets,