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AMST 3100 The 1960s The Civil Rights Movement: 1960-1965. Powerpoint 4 Read Farber Chapter 4. The 1960 Greensboro Sit-in. Both Chafe and Farber flag the 1960 Greensboro sit-in as a powerful moment in the civil rights movement.
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Read Farber Chapter 4
On February 2, 1960, 4 students from NC A&T College sat at the Greensboro Woolworth lunch counter to eat, which was a violation of a Jim Crow rule that blacks could only get take-out food. The sit-ins inspired many, outraged others.
The Greensboro sit-in ignited a wave of sit-ins across the South. This demonstration is part of a sit-in in Virginia.
Ella Baker, one of the founders and inspirational leaders behind SNCC.
Shaw University marker, Raleigh, NC.
Civil rights advocates were often treated with disrespect and often out-right violence by the police and white bigots. This sit-in occurred in Mississippi. Over time, SNCC members began to re-think their strategies and goals.
An attempt to swim at a whites-only St. Augustine, Florida beach was greeting by police wielding batons.
This violent attack against a freedom ride bus occurred in Alabama. One of the first attacks occurred just outside of Charlotte in Rock Hill, S.C.. It was not uncommon for the police or a sheriff to allow a violent white mob to attack the bus for a few minutes before restoring “law and order.” The use of the press by the freedom riders was masterful. The whole world was watching.
J Edgar Hoover was a right-wing anti-communist who viewed the civil rights movement as an agent of communism. He violated the law by using the FBI for illegal activities against civil rights advocates. He was never charged.
Meredith went on to graduate from the University of Mississippi in 1964. Later, in 1966, he began a solitary March Against Fear from Memphis to Jackson. He was shot by a sniper shortly after beginning his march. This photo captures the moment. When they heard about the shooting, other civil rights advocates like ML King and Stokely Carmichael continued the march in Meredith’s name. Meredith later recovered.
Images such as these helped create sympathy for civil rights advocates and caused many who did not live in the South to wonder how brutal Southern racism was.
Read King’s Letter from a Birmingham Jail, written at this time.
Wallace being confronted by a U.S. attorney general at the university, 1963.
Click here to see a video of this speech.
King waves to the crowd after delivering perhaps the best speech of that era. There was momentum for change after the March on Washington, and it added support for the Civil Rights Act proposed by Kennedy. However, there was tension backstage, and SNCC would begin to split away from King’s model.
In 1964, Malcolm X advocated the formation of a black nationalist organization. He rejected the assimilation model advocated by the SCLC. SNCC members were also considering black nationalism by this period.
The MFDP felt insulted that they were not recognized by the Democrats sufficiently. This contributed to a general feeling in SNCC that neither political party would serve their cause.
In this photo LBJ signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Kennedy helped draft the Act but was assassinated before its passage. This Civil Rights Act is perhaps the most significant legislation of this era. From now on, the federal government would police against the types of public racial and sexual discrimination that had characterized the American experience for centuries. Notice that only the Dixiecrats stood out in opposition to this Act.
Alabama State Troopers attack the Selma marchers. The attack would be known as “Bloody Sunday.”
The Black Panther Party linked capitalism to exploitation, as can be seen in this 1970 anti-drug poster.