Download
what is happening to polymer additives n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
What is happening to polymer additives PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
What is happening to polymer additives

What is happening to polymer additives

315 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

What is happening to polymer additives

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. What is happening to polymer additives Jitu Vadodaria Jayvee Organics Endowment Lecture March 24, 2005 Ahmedabad

  2. Contents • Why additives - significance • Additives - types • Global scenario • Indian scenario • Key issues • Trends • Case studies • PVC compounding - some aspects

  3. PVC/HDPE pipes • 50 years of service life • PVC pipes - underground • HDPE pipes - outside • Heat stabilizer key for service life of PVC pipes • Carbon black/UV stabilizer for service life of HDPE pipes

  4. PVC windows • At least 15 years service life for economy • No colour fading • No breakage • This is only possible due: * Acrylic/CPE impact modifier * Rutile titanium dioxide pigment

  5. PVC power cable • High temperature resistance due high tension power (85-105 C) • Higher insulation • Can only be achieved by: *Higher mol.wt. Phthalate plasticizer (DIDP) or trimellitate plasticizer * Calcined clay for insulation

  6. PE insulation cable • PE in contact with copper breaks down • This can be prevented by use of * Metal deactivator in addition to primary antioxidant system

  7. PE halogen free flame retardant building wire • High oxygen index • Low smoke density • Only possible by use of * N-P based FR additive * Melamine compounds

  8. Additives=Performance+property-preservation/retention • All these examples clearly show: * Performance * Property retention/preservation/protection in severe service environment/condition Polymer additives essential to provide • Performance • Property protection • Property preservation

  9. LLDPE thin film • Shark skin surface - rough surface • Melt fracture • Surface can be made smooth by use of * Polymer processing aid - Fluro elastomer polymer

  10. BOPP film for high speed packaging • High stiffness • Easy machinability • Faster packaging speed • High stiffness - Aromatic resin • Easy machinability - Slip additive • Faster packaging speed - Terpolymer

  11. Plastic –wood composites • Wood flour dispersion • Higher moisture of wood flour • Low flow • Dispersion - Coupling agent • Moisture control - Desiccant • Flow - Processing aid/lubricant

  12. PVC building thin wire • Economical production of highly filled flame retardant formulation • Faster extrusion speed for economy • This is achieved by * Use of processing aid * Use of PE wax or montan acid ester

  13. Polymer additive=Processability • Processing aid * Acrylics/ Fluro elastomer * Slip additive - Erucamide/ Oleamide All these additives contribute to Processability of polymer

  14. Polymer additive can spoil quality if care not taken properly • Quality of additive quite difficult to convert into plastic properties • Chemical quality alone can not justify its use in polymer • Numerous suppliers • Slow process of approval • Select standard additive product from leading suppliers and not go for cost saving • Loss will be significantly high

  15. Functions of polymer additive PERFORMANCE POLYMER ADDITIVES PROPERTY RETENTION PRESERVATION PROCESSABILITY

  16. Additives classificationProperty modifier • Plasticizer • Impact modifier • Blowing agent • Coupling agent • Nucleating agent • Organic peroxide • Reinforcing agent

  17. Additive classificationProperty extender • Flame retardant • Heat stabilizer • Antioxidant • Light stabilizer • Antistatic agent

  18. Additive –classificationProcessing aid • Lubricant • Mould release agent • Anti block additive • Slip additive

  19. Polymer additive demand estimates2004 • Polymer demand 170 MMT • Additive demand 9 MMT • Additive percent 5 % • Additive cost 10 % • Additive costs only 10% of the polymer but plays a much bigger role

  20. Global polymer additive distribution by type (%) • Plasticizer 59 • Flame retardant 12 • Impact modifier 8 • Heat Stabilizer 6 • Lubricant 6 • Antioxidant 3 • Peroxide 2 • Light stabilizer 1 • Others 3 • Total 100

  21. Additive usage distribution by polymer • Polymer % PVC 65-70 Polyolefin 10 Styrenics 5 Other 15-20

  22. Additive usage by region • North America 2.5 • Europe 2.5 • Asia 3 • S. America 0.5 • Middle East 0.5 • Russia etc 0.5 • Total 9 All in MMT

  23. Additive demand estimatesIndia2004(KT) • Plasticizer 185 • Heat stabilizer 25 • Lubricant 18 • Antioxidant 5 • Flame retardant 4 • Impact mod/P. aid 5 • Others 8 • Total 248

  24. Polymer additiveKey issues • Global market Vs local suppliers • Market growing more in Asia but suppliers continue in Europe/USA • Large no. of small suppliers in Asia • Lower growth - survival of fittest leading to M&A • Environmental pressures & new legislation

  25. Polymer additiveKey issues • Plasticizer toxicity • Elimination of heavy metal components • Non halogenated flame retardants • Lowering of dosage level for safety

  26. Recent trends • Global majors developing niche products • Patents expiry leading to newer players • M& A activities on an increase for survival • Global majors setting up plants in fast growing Asia • Higher awareness on environmental issues demanding more HSE research

  27. Recent trends • PVC pipes moving from lead stabilizer to tin/ca - zn/organic • Slow but sure phasing of lead from PVC cable sector • Phasing out of halogenated flame retardants • Shift from PVC to non vinyls for flame retardance

  28. New additive products/markets • Oxygen scavenger for packaging • Wood composites • Newer flame retardants • Biodegradable additive • Conductive additive • Nano filler • Newer additive for plasticulture

  29. Glass bead -an economic alternative of glass fiber • PP Moulded product of 0.5 KG weight • Production requirement - 1000 unit • Production cost Rs 500/hour • Raw material cost • PP Rs. 60/KG • Glass Fiber Rs. 70/KG • Glass bead Rs. 60/KG

  30. Glass bead in PP- A case study • Cycle time/Defect rate • PP 60 second 5.2% • PP+30% Glass fiber 65 second 5.2% • PP+20% GF+10% GB 54 second 3.6% • PP+20% Glass bead 46 second 1.2%

  31. PP moulded productA case study • Material Total units KG • PP 1052 526 • PP+30% GF 1052 526 • PP+20%+10% 1036 518 • PP+20% GB 1012 506

  32. Cost benefit analysisPP glass bead Vs glass fiber moulded product • Material Process hour Total cost(Rs) • PP 17.52 40327 • PP+30% 18.99 42635 • PP+20+10 15.54 39886 • PP+20% 12.93 36826 • Saving 4.59 3501 • Saving 6.06 5809 • Saving 2.61 3060

  33. PVC compoundingSome aspects • All PVC products contain 30-95 % of PVC polymer • PVC very dependent on additive/compounding • More than 50% of PVC is mixed only up to dry blend powder form (rigid) • Plasticized compounds in pellet form

  34. Key aspects of PVC compounding • Cooling of dry blend essential for efficient use of heat stabilizer • Higher bulk density can only be developed by dry blending temp reaches 120C • Moisture removal essential for better clarity or surface finish

  35. Critical compounding features - PVC • Cooler mixer essential for dry blend • Internal mixer or continuous extruder often used • Sequential addition of additive provides advantages • Die face cutting system more suited to prevent moisture pick up • Close system more preferred due environmental pollution

  36. Compounding of PVC is black art • PVC melt tends to stick to metal more than all other polymers • Lubricant selection to be done on • External • Internal • Internal-external • Also multi lubricants with varying melting temp should be selected

  37. PVC is driven by additive systems & compounding • Same PVC products can be produced with different approaches of additives • Experience a key requirement for successful PVC compounding/products at optimum cost and quality • Additive indeed a great leveler in PVC products • Learn additive in order to become expert in PVC compounding