Routes of Bacterial Infection. Respiratory tract Gastrointestinal Tract Genitourinary tract Unnatural routes opened up by breaks in mucous membranes or skin Different levels of host defense mechanisms are enlisted depending on the number of organisms entering and their virulence. .
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Antibody and complement split product C3b bind to bacteria, serving as opsonins to increase phagocytosis.
C3a and C5a induce local mast cell degranulation
Other complement split products are chemotactic for neutrophils and macrophages.
Many bacteria have developed ways to overcome some of these host defense mechanisms