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Respondent Conditioning. Ch 21. Conditioning. Operant conditioning or instrumental conditioning Pavlovian or respondent conditioning. B.F. Skinner. Ivan Pavlov. Does respondent conditioning play a role in magazine training?. Remember operant level What did rat do when pellet dropped?.

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conditioning
Conditioning
  • Operant conditioning or instrumental conditioning
  • Pavlovian or respondent conditioning
does respondent conditioning play a role in magazine training
Does respondent conditioning play a role in magazine training?
  • Remember operant level
  • What did rat do when pellet dropped?
terms
Terms
  • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS or US)
  • Unconditioned response (UCR or UR)
  • Conditioned stimulus (CS)
  • Conditioned response (CR)
slide8
US
  • A stimulus that produces the unconditioned response without previous pairing with another stimulus
slide9
UR
  • An unlearned response elicited by the presentation of an US.
slide10
CS
  • A stimulus that acquires its eliciting properties through previous pairing with another stimulus.
slide11
CR
  • A learned response elicited by the presentation of a conditioned stimulus.
unconditioned stimulus
Unconditioned Stimulus

UCS

(food pellet)

An UCS elicits behavior without any learning history with regard to that stimulus.

slide13

Unconditioned Response

UCS

(food pellet)

UCR

(salivation)

An UCR is a reflex response elicited by an UCS. The food pellet elicits salivation.

slide14

Respondent Conditioning

UCS

(food pellet)

UCR

(salivation)

pairing

neutral stimulus

(click of pellet dispenser)

Following repeated pairings of the UCS and a neutral stimulus...

slide15

Respondent Conditioning

CS

(click of pellet dispenser)

CR

(salivation)

…the neutral stimulus, when presented alone, elicits the CR. The neutral stimulus is now a CS (no longer neutral) because of the conditioning history.

respondent conditioning16
Respondent Conditioning
  • No aspect of the procedure depends on the organism’s behavior. Rat did not have to “do” anything.
  • Procedure consists of presentation of stimuli
    • Presented according to a prearranged temporal plan
  • No response contingency (dependency)
slide17

Respondent Conditioning

UCS

(food pellet)

?

(salivation)

pairing

? stimulus

(click of pellet dispenser)

Following repeated pairings of the UCS and a ______ stimulus...

slide18

Respondent Conditioning

?

(click of pellet dispenser)

?

(salivation)

…the neutral stimulus, when presented alone, elicits the ___. The neutral stimulus is now a ___ (no longer neutral) because of the conditioning history.

slide19

Respondent Conditioning

CS

(click of pellet dispenser)

CR

(salivation)

…the neutral stimulus, when presented alone, elicits the CR. The neutral stimulus is now a CS (no longer neutral) because of the conditioning history.

operant conditioning
Operant Conditioning

Behavior (Response)

SR+

Peck disk

Grain hopper access

slide21

Operant Conditioning

Behavior (Response)

SR+

Peck disk

Grain hopper access

ESSENTIAL that the reinforcer presentation depends on the organism’s response.

slide22

In operant conditioning, it is the occurrence of a response that causes reinforcement to be delivered.(Reinforcement is contingent upon the response)

slide23

In respondent conditioning, the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli are presented without regard to the animal’s behavior.(no contingency)

slide24

In operant conditioning, must detect response in order to know when to deliver reinforcementIn respondent conditioning, must detect response to know whether conditioning is taking place

slide25

Essential features of each procedure?Special exercise helps highlight essential features:-operantly condition vasoconstriction-respondently condition the lever press

operantly condition peripheral vasoconstriction
Operantly condition peripheral vasoconstriction
  • Efforts to operantly condition smooth muscle systems have not been very successful
  • Procedure can be applied to any response system
respondently condition the lever press
Respondently condition the lever press
  • No lever-pressing reflex in the rat’s lever pressing repertoire…
  • No reinforcement for lever pressing
phobias
Phobias?
  • Long lasting, intense, irrational fear.
  • Fear is produced by previously neutral stimuli.
what is fear
What is fear?
  • “Fears” darkness: Darkness is
    • a learned aversive stimulus and
    • a conditioned eliciting stimulus
  • Responses – physiological and emotional – are conditioned responses to the eliciting stimulus.
slide32

Watson & Rayner

UCS

(Striking iron bar)

UCR

(fear response)

pairing

neutral stimulus

(White rat)

Following repeated pairings of the UCS and a neutral stimulus...

slide33

Watson & Rayner

CS

(White rat)

CR

(fear response)

…the neutral stimulus, when presented alone, elicits the CR. The neutral stimulus is now a CS (no longer neutral) because of the conditioning history.

higher order conditioning
Higher Order Conditioning
  • Establishing a conditioned stimulus by pairing a neutral stimulus with an already established conditioned stimulus.
slide35

Watson & Rayner

CS

(white rat)

CR

(fear response)

pairing

neutral stimulus

(Santa’s beard)

Following repeated pairings of the CS and a neutral stimulus...

slide36

Watson & Rayner

CS

(White rat)

CR

(fear response)

CS

(Santa’s beard)

…the neutral stimulus, when presented alone, elicits the CR. The neutral stimulus is now a CS (no longer neutral) because of the conditioning history.

respondent extinction
Respondent Extinction
  • Present the conditioned stimulus without pairing it with the unconditioned stimulus or with an already established conditioned stimulus, and the conditioned stimulus will lose its eliciting power.
operant treatment of phobias
Operant treatment of phobias
  • Differential reinforcement
  • Reinforced practice – reinforce approaching aversive and fear-evoking stimuli
  • Also involves respondent extinction (repeated presentations of the CS without the UCS)
systematic desensitization
Systematic Desensitization
  • Combining relaxation with a hierarchy of fear-producing stimuli arranged from the least to the most frightening
    • Can be in vivo or with imagination
systematic desensitization40
Systematic Desensitization
  • Develop hierarchy of fears
  • Complete relaxation training
  • Begin systematic desensitization
hierarchy of fears
Hierarchy of Fears
  • Thinking about basement
  • On basement stairs
  • Standing in basement
  • Notice spider webs in basement
  • See a dead spider 5 ft away
  • See a live spider 5 ft away
  • Etc
  • Etc
  • Ect
  • Ect
  • Ect
  • Ect
  • Spider crawling on hand
relaxation training
Relaxation Training
  • Tense, then relax muscle groups
  • Imagery – warm sun, calm ocean
  • Practice
after mastery of relaxation
After mastery of relaxation…
  • After training, begin Systematic Desensitization
  • Raise finger during presentation of items from hierarchy if tension occurs and lower finger when there is a return to a relaxed state
  • Repeat until relaxation is maintained throughout hierarchy