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Respondent Conditioning

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  1. Respondent Conditioning Ch 21

  2. Conditioning • Operant conditioning or instrumental conditioning • Pavlovian or respondent conditioning

  3. B.F. Skinner

  4. Ivan Pavlov

  5. Does respondent conditioning play a role in magazine training? • Remember operant level • What did rat do when pellet dropped?

  6. Terms • Unconditioned stimulus (UCS or US) • Unconditioned response (UCR or UR) • Conditioned stimulus (CS) • Conditioned response (CR)

  7. US • A stimulus that produces the unconditioned response without previous pairing with another stimulus

  8. UR • An unlearned response elicited by the presentation of an US.

  9. CS • A stimulus that acquires its eliciting properties through previous pairing with another stimulus.

  10. CR • A learned response elicited by the presentation of a conditioned stimulus.

  11. Unconditioned Stimulus UCS (food pellet) An UCS elicits behavior without any learning history with regard to that stimulus.

  12. Unconditioned Response UCS (food pellet) UCR (salivation) An UCR is a reflex response elicited by an UCS. The food pellet elicits salivation.

  13. Respondent Conditioning UCS (food pellet) UCR (salivation) pairing neutral stimulus (click of pellet dispenser) Following repeated pairings of the UCS and a neutral stimulus...

  14. Respondent Conditioning CS (click of pellet dispenser) CR (salivation) …the neutral stimulus, when presented alone, elicits the CR. The neutral stimulus is now a CS (no longer neutral) because of the conditioning history.

  15. Respondent Conditioning • No aspect of the procedure depends on the organism’s behavior. Rat did not have to “do” anything. • Procedure consists of presentation of stimuli • Presented according to a prearranged temporal plan • No response contingency (dependency)

  16. Respondent Conditioning UCS (food pellet) ? (salivation) pairing ? stimulus (click of pellet dispenser) Following repeated pairings of the UCS and a ______ stimulus...

  17. Respondent Conditioning ? (click of pellet dispenser) ? (salivation) …the neutral stimulus, when presented alone, elicits the ___. The neutral stimulus is now a ___ (no longer neutral) because of the conditioning history.

  18. Respondent Conditioning CS (click of pellet dispenser) CR (salivation) …the neutral stimulus, when presented alone, elicits the CR. The neutral stimulus is now a CS (no longer neutral) because of the conditioning history.

  19. Operant Conditioning Behavior (Response) SR+ Peck disk Grain hopper access

  20. Operant Conditioning Behavior (Response) SR+ Peck disk Grain hopper access ESSENTIAL that the reinforcer presentation depends on the organism’s response.

  21. In operant conditioning, it is the occurrence of a response that causes reinforcement to be delivered.(Reinforcement is contingent upon the response)

  22. In respondent conditioning, the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli are presented without regard to the animal’s behavior.(no contingency)

  23. In operant conditioning, must detect response in order to know when to deliver reinforcementIn respondent conditioning, must detect response to know whether conditioning is taking place

  24. Essential features of each procedure?Special exercise helps highlight essential features:-operantly condition vasoconstriction-respondently condition the lever press

  25. Operantly condition peripheral vasoconstriction • Efforts to operantly condition smooth muscle systems have not been very successful • Procedure can be applied to any response system

  26. Respondently condition the lever press • No lever-pressing reflex in the rat’s lever pressing repertoire… • No reinforcement for lever pressing

  27. Respondent vs. Operant Conditioning

  28. Phobias? • Long lasting, intense, irrational fear. • Fear is produced by previously neutral stimuli.

  29. What is fear? • “Fears” darkness: Darkness is • a learned aversive stimulus and • a conditioned eliciting stimulus • Responses – physiological and emotional – are conditioned responses to the eliciting stimulus.

  30. Watson & Rayner UCS (Striking iron bar) UCR (fear response) pairing neutral stimulus (White rat) Following repeated pairings of the UCS and a neutral stimulus...

  31. Watson & Rayner CS (White rat) CR (fear response) …the neutral stimulus, when presented alone, elicits the CR. The neutral stimulus is now a CS (no longer neutral) because of the conditioning history.

  32. Higher Order Conditioning • Establishing a conditioned stimulus by pairing a neutral stimulus with an already established conditioned stimulus.

  33. Watson & Rayner CS (white rat) CR (fear response) pairing neutral stimulus (Santa’s beard) Following repeated pairings of the CS and a neutral stimulus...

  34. Watson & Rayner CS (White rat) CR (fear response) CS (Santa’s beard) …the neutral stimulus, when presented alone, elicits the CR. The neutral stimulus is now a CS (no longer neutral) because of the conditioning history.

  35. Respondent Extinction • Present the conditioned stimulus without pairing it with the unconditioned stimulus or with an already established conditioned stimulus, and the conditioned stimulus will lose its eliciting power.

  36. Operant treatment of phobias • Differential reinforcement • Reinforced practice – reinforce approaching aversive and fear-evoking stimuli • Also involves respondent extinction (repeated presentations of the CS without the UCS)

  37. Systematic Desensitization • Combining relaxation with a hierarchy of fear-producing stimuli arranged from the least to the most frightening • Can be in vivo or with imagination

  38. Systematic Desensitization • Develop hierarchy of fears • Complete relaxation training • Begin systematic desensitization

  39. Hierarchy of Fears • Thinking about basement • On basement stairs • Standing in basement • Notice spider webs in basement • See a dead spider 5 ft away • See a live spider 5 ft away • Etc • Etc • Ect • Ect • Ect • Ect • Spider crawling on hand

  40. Relaxation Training • Tense, then relax muscle groups • Imagery – warm sun, calm ocean • Practice

  41. After mastery of relaxation… • After training, begin Systematic Desensitization • Raise finger during presentation of items from hierarchy if tension occurs and lower finger when there is a return to a relaxed state • Repeat until relaxation is maintained throughout hierarchy