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Loading, Secondary Transport, and Sort Yard Functions. Lecture Topics. Loading Methods & Equipment Secondary Transport Methods & Equipment Sort Yards Objectives, Functions, & Equipment. Loading Overview.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Lecture Topics

  • Loading
    • Methods & Equipment
  • Secondary Transport
    • Methods & Equipment
  • Sort Yards
    • Objectives, Functions, & Equipment
slide3

Loading Overview

  • Loading – The act of placing material, i.e. the load, on a vehicle for further transport.
  • Within “hot logging” operations, loading can be the limiting factor for production.
  • Must load for maximum payload within legal limits
  • A safe, balanced load is essential
    • Position load to prevent slippage
slide4

Loading Overview (cont’d)

  • Loading methods include:
    • Hand / manual
    • Stationary
      • A-frame – winch and cable system
    • Trailer mounted
    • Mobile
slide5

Loading Methods & Equipment

  • Hand / Manual
    • Uncommon in the U.S.
    • Low productivity
    • High labor requirement
    • Typically found in developing countries
slide6

Loading Methods & Equipment

  • A-frame winch & cable system
slide7

Loading Methods & Equipment

  • Trailer-mounted
  • Knuckleboom loader
    • Based on back-hoe concept
    • Stationary with a 360° operating circle
    • Small landing area required (< 1/2 acre)
    • Flexible maneuverability
    • Can be used in conjunction with a pull through delimber
slide8

Mobile Loaders

  • Shovels / Excavators
    • Common in PNW
    • Maneuverability
    • Flexibility
    • Affordability
    • Work efficiently on small, roadside landings
slide10

Mobile Loaders

  • Front-End Loaders
  • Adapted from forklift methodology
  • Used on the landing or log yard
  • Can be mounted on tracked or wheeled carriers
  • Require large landings (> 1 acre)
  • Loads over-the-side rather than the ends
  • More applicable on centralized landings
  • Can cause significant soil compaction
slide12

Mobile Loaders

  • Three-wheeled loaders
  • Light weight
  • Easy to transport
  • Good for small diameter wood and fuel reduction applications
  • Applicable in plantation forestry
  • Use skid steering
  • Low operating costs
slide13

Mobile Loaders

  • Self-loading log truck
  • Required to load itself
  • Powered by the truck’s engine
  • Usually smaller than stand-alone loaders
  • Best suited for units with small volumes
  • Typically used with small operations (e.g. Student Logging Crew)
slide14

Self-Loading Truck

  • Advantages
    • Flexibility in scheduling log haul
    • Low labor requirements
      • Driver typically serves as the loader operator
    • Ability to gather scattered loads
      • Works well with continuous road-side landings
    • Can load and unload logs using the same piece of equipment
      • Eliminates waiting time
    • Small landing required
slide15

Self-Loading Truck

  • Disadvantages
    • Smaller size reduces reaching and loading capacity
    • Payload is reduced by the loader’s weight
    • Load completion is slower than conventional log trucks
slide16

Mobile Loaders

  • Forwarders
  • Most common in a CTL operation with “cold logging”
  • Works independently to load, transport, & unload
  • Can forward slash material or roundwood effectively
slide17

Loading Location & Logistics

  • Landing type and location should match extraction method as well as loading equipment
  • In most cases, roadside loading allows system functions to work independently
  • Loading from centralized landings is typically more expensive
    • Each function is limited by the system rate
  • Loading costs can likely be reduced by providing alternative work for the loader, i.e. increased utilization
slide18

Secondary Transport Overview

  • Secondary transport – the movement of forest products from landings, decks, yards, or other concentration points to buying or delivery locations
  • The most liability for lawsuits occurs during secondary transport
    • Many logging contractors subcontract secondary transport to specialized trucking companies
  • Wood fiber is typically transported as

1) Chips 4) Log-length

2) Short-wood 5) Tree-length

3) Cut-to-length

slide19

Secondary Transport Methods

  • Water transport
    • Oldest transport method
    • Barging or rafting
    • Payload
    • ~ 300 cords/barge
    • ~ 9 barges/tow
    • Distance > 400 miles
slide20

Secondary Transport Methods

  • Rail transport
    • Used primarily for chips & short-wood
    • Used less frequently today
    • Payload
      • ~ 20-40 cords per car
      • ~ 100 cars per train
    • Distance < 400 miles
    • Demurrage – cost for rail car setting unloaded
      • $25-40 / day / car
slide21

Secondary Transport Methods

  • Truck transport
    • Most prevalent transportation method
    • Flexible scheduling
    • Well developed road system
    • Relatively low investment
    • Speed of delivery
    • Distance < 150 miles
slide22

Truck Transportation

  • Truck selection criteria
    • Type of load – short-wood, tree-length, etc.
    • Weight of truck and load
    • Type of terrain – flat, mountainous, switchbacks, etc.
    • Road type – public, private, etc.
    • Haul distance
    • Periodic volume
    • Safety requirements – braking, etc.
slide23

Truck Transportation

  • Oregon Log Hauling Regulations
    • Maximum height – 14 feet
    • Maximum width – 8.5 feet
    • Maximum axle load – 20,000 lbs
    • Maximum tandem axle load – 34,000 lbs
    • Maximum gross weight – 80,000 lbs
    • Maximum tire load – 600 lb/in of tire width
  • Note: Additional information can be found @ http://www.odot.state.or.us/home/
slide24

Stinger Steering Hwy Log Truck

  • Log load forms framework of trailer
  • Increased maneuverability with stinger steering
  • Typical on highway load 4-5 MBF
slide25

Log Train

  • Applicable for CTL wood
  • Setout trailers are commonly used with CTL logging
  • Costly to hot deck trucks in a CTL operation
slide26

Hay Racks

  • Good for pulpwood or salvage operations
  • Short-wood hauling is most common
  • Also referred to as pallet trailers
slide27

Off-Highway Log Truck

  • Also called “pull-out truck”
  • Used exclusively on forest roads or roads where there are no weight restrictions.
  • Width of truck is about two times as wide as a standard highway truck.
slide28

Chip Vans

  • Used with in-woods chippers
  • Has considerable off-tracking which may require curve widening
  • Hard to maneuver on forest roads
  • Have openings either on the top or rear
slide29

Sort Yard Functions

  • Objectives
    • Sort and store timber
    • Process logs for re-sale or use
    • Pest & damage prevention
    • Scale logs
slide30

Sort Yard Functions

  • After unloading
    • Pre-sorted logs can be moved directly into decks
    • Unsorted logs must be spread out on skids for sorting

Logs being sorted and processed

slide31

Sort Yard Functions

  • Scaling – The measurement or estimation of the quantity or quality of felled timber
    • Stick scaling: each log is measured and graded by hand
      • Commonly used for saw-timber where BF volumes are important
slide32

Sort Yard Functions

  • Weight scaling:
    • Load weight = loaded truck weight - empty truck weight
    • Most commonly used for pulpwood where BF volumes aren’t important
  • A sample of loads must be stick scaled to convert weight to volume
slide33

Sort Yard Functions

  • Processinglogs (manual or mechanical)
    • Cut to preferred lengths
    • Remove broken ends and knots
    • Remove rot
slide34

Sort Yard Functions

  • Sort by:
    • Species
    • Use (sawlogs, pulp)
    • Grade (clear, chip and saw)
slide35

Sort Yard Functions

  • Storage of logs
    • Decks on land
    • Booms in water
slide36

Sort Yard Functions

  • Pest and damage control
    • Store in fresh water to avoid insect damage
    • On land, spray logs with water to limit insect damage and risk of fire
    • On the Eastside, wet logs have less Blue Stain and end checking
slide37

Sort Yard Equipment

  • Shovel / Excavator
    • Used for
      • Unloading
      • Sorting
      • Decking

Sorting with an excavator

slide38

Sort Yard Equipment

  • Wheeled Front-End Loader
    • Used for
      • Unloading
      • Sorting
      • Decking
      • Transporting

Cat 980 in sort yard

slide39

Sort Yard Equipment

  • Stacker
    • Used for
      • Unloading
      • Decking
      • Transporting