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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing – Basic Serology/Immunology Cecile Sanders, M.Ed., MT(ASCP), CLS (NCA) Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology The Immune System Complex system of tissues, cells, cell products, & biologically active chemicals

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unit 6c clinical laboratory testing basic serology immunology

Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing – Basic Serology/Immunology

Cecile Sanders, M.Ed., MT(ASCP),

CLS (NCA)

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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
  • The Immune System
    • Complex system of tissues, cells, cell products, & biologically active chemicals
    • Produces an Immune Response
    • Defense mechanism against foreign substances called “antigens” (ag)
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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
  • Natural Resistance vs. Specific Immunity
    • Natural Resistance
      • Includes physical barriers (skin, mucous membranes, etc.), white blood cells like neutrophils, and proteins that cause inflammation
      • Non-specific
      • Does not require exposure to an antigen
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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
  • Specific Immune Response
    • Recognition – recognizes foreign antigens and distinguishes them from “self”
    • Specificity – reacts with a specific antigen without reacting with others
    • Memory – “anamnestic response”
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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
  • Cells, Tissues, and Organs of Immune System
    • Lymphocytes – B Cells and T Cells
    • Primary Lymphoid Organs = Bone Marrow and Thymus (glandular

tissue located

at the base of the

sternum)

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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
    • Secondary Lymphoid Tissue = Spleen, Lymph Nodes, Appendix, and Tonsils
  • Humoral Immunity
    • B Lymphocytes produce antibodies against specific antigens
    • Good protection against bacteria, toxins, and circulating antigens
  • Cell-Mediated Immunity
    • T Lymphocytes protect against viruses, fungi, tumor cells, and intracellular organisms
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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
  • Immunoglobulins (Ig)
    • Also called “antibodies” (ab)
    • Named by placing the prefix anti before the name of the antigen with which the antibody reacts
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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
  • Primary vs. Secondary Antibody Response
    • Primary occurs after first exposure to an antigen
    • Secondary Response
      • Sometimes called “anamnestic response”
      • Lymphocytes remember the antigen
      • Immunizations or vaccinations (such as for measles, tetanus, etc.) are effective because of the Secondary Response
    • Seroconversion = when an antibody is detectable in patient who has previously tested negative for the antibody
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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology

First and Second Responses to Antigens

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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
  • Categories of Conditions Associated with Immune System Abnormalities
    • Autoimmune Disease (RA, Lupus, Juvenile Type I Diabetes, Myasthenia Gravis)
    • Hypersensitivies (Hay fever, Asthma, Dermatitis)
    • Malignancies (Lymphomas, Leukemias, Multiple Myeloma)
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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
  • Categories of Conditions Associated with Immune System Abnormalities (cont’d)
    • Acquired Immunodeficiencies (Infections, Systemic Disease, Malignancies, Reactions to Drugs, Irradiation)
    • Congenital Immunodeficiencies (DiGeorge Syndrome, Aggamaglobulinemia, SCID – Severe Combined Immune Deficiency)
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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
  • Tests of Immune Function
    • Based on Antigen-Antibody Reactions
      • May be qualitative (positive or negative)
      • May be quantitative (Titer = Reciprocal of the highest dilution of patient’s serum showing a positive reaction with antigen)
    • Principles of Immunological Tests
      • Agglutination and Agglutination Inhibition – visible clumping of cells or particles due to their reaction with an antibody
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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology

Agglutination of Red Blood Cells with Antibody

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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
  • Principles of Immunological Tests (cont’d)
    • Precipitation – formation of an insoluble complex when a specific antibody is reacted with a soluble antigen (usually in a gelatin-like substance)
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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology
  • Principles of Immunological Tests (cont’d)
    • Labeled Antibody Techniques – Molecules (labels) are attached to the antibodies, producing a visible reaction. Labels may be dyes, enzymes or radioisotopes.
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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology

Enzyme Linked Immunoassay (ELISA)

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Unit #6C – Clinical Laboratory Testing - Basic Serology/Immunology

Visit this website for a virtual immunology lab visit and experiment:

http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/vlabs/immunology/index.html

Try to complete the lab by following website directions! Very cool!