inharmonic sounds of bowed strings in western music and beijing opera chen gia tsai l.
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National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Graduate Institute of Musicology Inharmonic sounds of bowed strings in Western music and Beijing opera Chen-Gia Tsai (蔡振家) Talk outline Chinese fiddle family phylogeny bow hair tension The jinghu (京胡) Inharmonic sound musical uses

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Presentation Transcript
talk outline
Talk outline
  • Chinese fiddle family
    • phylogeny
    • bow hair tension
  • The jinghu (京胡)
  • Inharmonic sound
    • musical uses
    • experiment on finger-string interaction
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
the origin of chinese fiddles
The origin of Chinese fiddles
  • The xiqin (奚琴)
    • mid-8th century
  • Subsequently introduced to both Korea and Japan
divergent evolution
Divergent evolution

Erxian二弦

Xiqin奚琴

innovation higher bow hair tension
Innovation: higher bow hair tension
  • Low bow hair tension
    • Early instruments
    • Erxian(二弦)
    • Very soft, long notes
  • High bow hair tension
    • Modern instruments
    • Loud, rapid, staccato notes
bow hair tension western music
Bow hair tension: Western music
  • The Italian bow
    • slim and light
    • a high hair tension
  • The German bow
    • highly arched
    • a low hair tension
german bow chord playing
German bow: chord playing
  • The player could tighten or relax the bow hair tension at will
    • high tension: playing on a single string
    • low tension: playing on two or more strings simultaneously

www.baroquemusic.org/barvlnbo.html

talk outline8
Talk outline
  • Chinese fiddle family
    • phylogeny
    • bow hair tension
  • The jinghu (京胡)
  • Inharmonic sound
    • musical uses
    • experiment on finger-string interaction
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
history
History
  • Low bow hair tension(軟弓)
  • High bow hair tension(硬弓)
    • Since 19th century
timbre playing
Timbre & playing
  • Loud, sharp and piercing
  • Large-amplitude vibration of snakeskin
    • Mobility of snakeskin
    • Heavy use of rosin
    • Forceful bowing
  • Large-amplitude vibration of strings
    • Production of noise-rich sound
talk outline11
Talk outline
  • Chinese fiddle family
    • phylogeny
    • bow hair tension
  • The jinghu (京胡)
  • Inharmonic sound
    • musical uses
    • experiment on finger-string interaction
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
digitally bowed cello string
Digitally bowed cello string

Muller & Lauterborn. Acustica 82 (4): 657-664, 1996.

inharmonic sound bow speed
Inharmonic sound & bow speed
  • D = 2.4, 2.0, 2.0, 1.2
    • Torus-like attractor
    • The bow speed is at the upper limit of bow speeds used for most musical purposes and beyond.
  • High bow speeds
    • staccato or sforzando
jinghu s inharmonic sound
Jinghu’s inharmonic sound
  • Descriptions
    • blossoming tone, tiger tone, overtone, artificial noise...
  • High-pass noise
    • fcutoff ~ 1.6 kHz.
finger string collision
Finger-string collision
  • Touch technique of the left hand
  • Nonlinear boundary condition with unilateral constraints
  • Sitar, tanpura & biwa
experiment on finger string interaction
Experiment on finger-string interaction
  • Aims
    • How frequently do they contact?
  • Method
    • Electrical circuit
    • Sampling rate: 100 kHz
experiment on finger string interaction19
Experiment on finger-string interaction
  • Materials
    • Finger
    • Wire
  • Aim
    • How the finger curvature affects noise production
slide20

no touch

no touch

touch

touch

slide21

no touch

no touch

touch

touch

talk outline22
Talk outline
  • Chinese fiddle family
    • phylogeny
    • bow hair tension
  • The jinghu (京胡)
  • Inharmonic sound
    • musical uses
    • experiment on finger-string interaction
  • Discussion
  • Conclusions
noise control or well controlled noise
Noise control or well-controlled noise?
  • Blossoming tones of the jinhu
  • Electrical guitar (distortion)
    • Dry & Gabrielsson (1997) Emotional expression in guitar band performance.
  • Growl singing
    • Rock music
    • Psychological effect: aggression
why is a loud noise rich sound aggressive
Why is a loud, noise-rich sound aggressive?
  • Growl voice as a by-product of spine stabilization
    • A raise in intra-abdominal pressure enhances spine stability in preparation for suddenly applied loads (weight lifting, attack...)
    • Because of this association of sound with action, the aggressive meaning of growling voices and loud, noisy sounds is universally recognized (the electrical guitar, the jinghu...)
    • Cholewicki et al. (1999) Lumbar spine stability can be augmented with an abdominal belt and/or increased intra-abdominal pressure.
future direction
Future direction
  • To measure and to model the collision between the string and the curved wall
    • Jinghu
    • Indian & Japanese plucked strings