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CISC 150 Introduction to Computers Our objectives are: Describe the major components and their interrelationships Hardware Software Networking/Connectivity Learn and demonstrate use of three of the most widely used office applications word processing spreadsheet development

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cisc 150 introduction to computers
CISC 150Introduction to Computers
  • Our objectives are:
    • Describe the major components and their interrelationships
      • Hardware
      • Software
      • Networking/Connectivity
    • Learn and demonstrate use of three of the most widely used office applications
      • word processing
      • spreadsheet development
      • database management
what is a computer
What is a computer?
  • A computer system includes a computer, peripheral devices, and software
  • Computer refers to a device that accepts input, processes data, stores data, and produces output
  • Inputmeans to feed information into a computer
    • Words and symbols in a document
    • Numbers for a calculation
    • Pictures

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

computer basics
Computer Basics

What is a computer?

  • Data refers to the symbols that represent facts, ideas and objects
  • Processing is the way that a computer manipulates data
    • performing calculations
    • sorting lists and numbers
    • drawing graphs
  • A computer processes data in a device called the central processing unit (CPU)

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what is a computer4
What is a computer?
  • A computer stores data so that it will be available for processing
  • Memory is an area of a computer that holds data that is waiting to be processed
    • Volatile memory
    • Non-volatile memory
  • Storage is the area where data can be left on a permanent basis

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

computer basics5
Computer Basics

What is a computer?

  • Computer output is the results produced by the computer
    • Reports
    • Documents
    • Music
    • Graphs
    • Pictures
  • An output device displays, prints or transmits the results of processing

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

computer categories
Computer Categories
  • A computer is categorized based on its technology, function, size, performance, and cost
  • Categories
    • Personal computers
    • Handheld computers
    • Workstations
    • Mainframes
    • Supercomputers
    • Servers

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what is a personal computer
What is a Personal Computer?
  • A personal computer is a type of microcomputer designed to meet the computing needs of an individual
    • Desktop computers
    • Notebook computers
    • Cost starts at $500, but most spend $1000 to $1200

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what is a tablet computer
What is a tablet computer?
  • A tablet computer is a portable computing device featuring a touch-sensitive screen that can be used as a writing or drawing pad
  • Prices start at about $1,200, but can reach to more than $2,000

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what is a handheld
What is a handheld?
  • A handheld computer or PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) is one that is designed to fit into a pocket, run on batteries, and be used while you are holding it
    • Send and receive e-mail
    • Use maps and global positioning
    • Maintain expense account, contacts, to-do lists, memos, etc.
    • Make voice calls using cellular service

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what types of computers can be classified as workstations
What types of computers can be classified as workstations?
  • The term “workstation” has two meanings
    • Powerful desktop models designed for specialized tasks
    • Ordinary personal computers connected to a local area network
  • A computer network is two or more computers or other devices that are connected for the purpose of sharing data and programs

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what is so special about a mainframe computer
What is so special about a mainframe computer?
  • A mainframe computer is a large and expensive computer that is capable of passing data simultaneously to many users
  • Used by governments and large corporations to provide centralized storage

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

how powerful is a supercomputer
How powerful is a supercomputer?
  • A supercomputer is one of the fastest computers in the world
    • Breaking codes
    • Modeling weather systems
    • Simulating nuclear explosions
    • Research simulations

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what makes a computer a server
What makes a computer a server?
  • A server serves the computers on a network by supplying them with data
  • A client receives data from a server
  • A computer can be a server or a client
  • High performance servers are needed when there is a need for lots of users and rapid response

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what is a personal computer system
What is a personal computer system?

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what is a peripheral device
What is a peripheral device?
  • A peripheral device designates equipment that might be added to a computer system to enhance its functionality
    • Printer
    • Digital camera
    • Scanner
    • Joystick
    • Graphics tablet

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

data information and files
Data, Information, and Files
  • Data is defined as the symbols, raw facts or figures that represent people, events, things and ideas
  • Information is data that is presented in a format people can understand and use
  • Computers store data in digital format as a series of 1s and 0s.
    • Each 1 or 0 is called a bit
    • Eight bits is called a byte

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what is a file
What is a file?
  • A file is a named collection of data that exists on a storage medium
  • A data file contains data such as the text for a document
  • An executable file contains the programs or instructions that tell a computer how to perform a specific task
  • A filename extension indicates a file’s contents
    • EXE
    • GIF

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what is application software
What is application software?
  • Application software is a set of one or more computer programs that helps a person carry out a task
    • Create, edit, and print documents
    • Manage money accounts
    • Create and edit home movies
    • Create and edit graphics
  • Application software is typically used by people

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what are the most popular operating systems
What are the most popular operating systems?
  • Microsoft Windows
    • Windows XP
    • Windows CE
  • Palm OS
  • Mac OS
  • Linux
  • Unix

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

how does an operating system affect compatibility
How does an operating system affect compatibility?
  • Two of the most important factors that influence compatibility and define a computer’s platform are the microprocessor and the operating system
    • PC’s are based on the design for one of the first personal computer “superstars” – the IBM PC
    • Macs are based on a proprietary design for a personal computer called the Apple Macintosh

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

how does the internet work
How does the Internet work?
  • The Internet is a collection of local, regional, national, and international computer networks that are linked together to exchange data and distribute processing tasks
  • The main high capacity routes of the Internet are referred to as the Internet backbone.
  • Communication between all of the different devices on the Internet is made possible by TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol)

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what sort of resources does the internet provide
What sort of resources does the Internet provide?
  • Web Sites – various locations in cyberspace that correspond to a corporation, a store, a magazine, and more
  • Search engines – help catalog a huge portion of the data stored on servers that are connected to the Internet
  • Downloads and uploads
    • Downloading
    • Uploading

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what sort of resources does the internet provide23
What sort of resources does the Internet provide?
  • E-mail– electronic messages
    • Mailing list server
  • Bulletin boards – discussion groups
    • Usenet
    • Newsgroups
  • Blogs – refers to a personal journal posted on the Web for access by the general public
  • E-commerce – online activities such as banking and shopping

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what sort of resources does the internet provide24
What sort of resources does the Internet provide?
  • Chat groups and instant messaging – interaction between users in real time
  • Internet telephony – telephone-style conversations to travel over the Internet to virtually anywhere in the world
  • Broadcasting – multicasting technology, can reach all over the world

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what sort of resources does the internet provide25
What sort of resources does the Internet provide?
  • Remote access and control – with the right software and passwords, can link two computers together and allow one to control the other
    • Telnet
  • P2P – peer-to-peer. It makes direct access of a computer by another available – with permission, of course
    • Popular music and file exchange Web sites

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what are my options for internet connections
What are my options for Internet connections?
  • Existing telephone line
  • Cable television line
  • Personal satellite link
  • Wireless or cell phone service
  • High-speed telephone services
    • ISDN, DSL

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what s the easiest cheapest way to access the internet
What’s the easiest, cheapest way to access the Internet?
  • Dial-up connection – is relatively simple and inexpensive because the necessary equipment and software are preinstalled on most new computers
  • Voiceband modem – converts digital signals into wave format to go over telephone lines and then at destination waves are converted back into digital
  • Dial-up top speed is 56 Kbps

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

does a cable modem provide a faster internet connection
Does a cable modem provide a faster Internet connection?
  • Requires 2 pieces of equipment
    • Network card – a device that’s designed to connect a personal computer to a local area network
    • Cable modem – device that changes computer’s signals into a form that can travel over cable TV links

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

does a cable modem provide a faster internet connection29
Does a cable modem provide a faster Internet connection?
  • Cable modem access is referred to as an always-on connection because your computer is always connected
  • Top speed is around 1.5 Mbps (25 times faster than a dial-up)
  • Suitable for most Internet activities, including real-time video and teleconferencing

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what about access provided by a school or business network
What about access provided by a school or business network?
  • Typically schools and business connect to a local area network (LAN) that is connected to the Internet and these connections are frequently always-on connections

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what other high speed internet access options are available
What other high-speed Internet access options are available?
  • ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) – 64Kbps or 128 Kbps
  • DSL (Digital Subscriber Line) – anywhere from twice as fast to approx. 125 times faster than 56 Kbps
    • Comes from phone company, requires proximity to a switching station
  • DSS (Digital Satellite Service) – 500 Kbps

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

internet service providers what s an isp
Internet Service ProvidersWhat’s an ISP?
  • An ISP (Internet Service Provider) is a company that maintains Internet computers and telecommunications equipment in order to provide Internet access to businesses, organizations, and individuals
    • An ISP that offers dial-up connections, for example, maintains a bank of modems
    • AOL, Earthlink

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

how do i choose an isp
How do I choose an ISP?
  • Geographical coverage
  • Type of service
  • Quality of service
  • Cost of monthly service
  • Cost of equipment and installation
  • Extra services
  • Customer service

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

user id s and passwords
User ID’s and Passwords
  • A user ID is a series of characters that becomes a person’s unique identifier
  • A password is a different series of characters that verifies your identity
  • Some computers are case-sensitive; they differentiate between upper and lower case letters

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

how do i choose a secure password
How do I choose a secure password?

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

lhup passwords
LHUP Passwords
  • Your initial password is: temp!x00 where “x” is your middle initial and “00” are the last two digits of your social security number. If you do not have a middle initial, type x. If you do not have a social security number, type 00.
  • You will be prompted to change your password the first time you log in. Your password must meet the following criteria:
    • It must be at least 6 characters long
    • The characters in your password must come from at least three out of the following four characters classes:
        • Uppercase characters
        • Lowercase characters
        • Numeric digits
        • Punctuation marks\special characters (!@#$%_+,etc)
    • The password cannot contain any part of your User ID or full name.
the world wide web
The World Wide Web
  • The Web is a collection of files that can be linked and accessed using HTTP
  • HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol - the protocol that allows Web browsers to communicate with Web servers
  • Many of these files produce documents called Web pages
  • Web site- location on a computer somewhere on the Internet that stores a collection of Web pages
    • http://www.yahoo.com

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

internet vs www
Internet vs. WWW

Kazza

Email

Web sites

IM

Chat

Newsgroups

what is the web world wide web
What is the Web (World Wide Web)?
  • Webserver - computer with special software for transmitting Web pages over the Internet
    • Domain names prefixed with www
  • Homepage - identifies the site and contains links to other pages at the site
  • Web sites are composed of a series of Webpages
    • Each page stored as a file
    • Referred to by a unique URL

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what is the web
What is the Web?
  • URL (Uniform Resource Locator) - an Internet address of a document on a computer
    • Begins with http://

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what is a browser
What is a browser?
  • Web browsersare software programs that run on your computer and help you access Web pages
    • Internet Explorer
    • Netscape

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

exactly what does a browser do
Exactly what does a browser do?
  • A browser fetches and displays Web pages
  • The server sends your computer data that’s stored
  • The data consists of information that you want to see and HTML tags, codes that tell your browser how to display it

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

exactly what does a browser do43
Exactly what does a browser do?

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what is a search engine
What is a search engine?
  • Search engine – popularly refers to a Web site that provides a variety of tools to help you find information
    • A software program that helps you locate web pages on certain topics
    • Enter keywords or descriptions
    • AltaVista, Google, Yahoo, etc.

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

exactly what is a query
Exactly what is a query?
  • Describes information you want to find
  • You can enter more than one search term. Separate each term with a space or search operator
    • A search operatoris a word or symbol that describes a relationship between keywords and thereby helps you create a more focused query
      • AND, OR, and NOT
      • Quotation marks
      • NEAR
      • Wildcards
      • Field Searches

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

learning google a search engine example
Learning GoogleA Search Engine Example
  • www.google.com
  • Demonstrate ‘–’
    • Lock Haven -University
  • Demonstrate “”
    • “Why read comics”
  • Demonstrate +
    • Henry Winkler +where +is he
  • Class, pick an obscure topic
exactly what is an e mail message
Exactly what is an e-mail message?
  • An e-mail message is a document that is composed on a computer and remains in digital form so that it can be transmitted to another computer
  • Every message includes a message header and the body of the message, usually displayed in a form

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

email49
Email
  • CC: Carbon Copy - sends a copy to the designated individuals. Used as just an “FYI”
  • BCC Blind Carbon Copy – sends a copy to the designated individuals, but the other receivers cannot see anyone listed on the BCC list. This is used to secretly included individuals.
what s an e mail attachment
What’s an e-mail attachment?
  • An e-mail attachment is a file that travels with a message to the recipient
  • A conversion process called MIME provides a way of disguising the file as plain ASCII text that can travel over the Internet

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

what other advanced e mail features are available
Address book

Group e-mails

Carbon copy

Assign a priority to your e-mail

Find a message

Enlarge text size

Sort messages

Refuse messages

Automate replies

Automatic fetching

Spell checking

What other advanced e-mail features are available?

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

e mail technology what is an e mail system
E-mail Technology: What is an e-mail system?
  • An e-mail system is the equipment and software that carries and manipulates e-mail messages
  • E-mail servers sort, store, and route email
  • Store-and-forward technology – a communications method in which data that cannot be sent directly to its destination will be temporarily stored until transmission is possible
    • POP/SMTP
    • IMAP
    • Web-based e-mail

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

types of email
Types of Email
  • POP: temporarily stores your email on a server. When you check your email it is downloaded onto your machine. Requires a client! (Outlook or Outlook Express)
  • IMAP: same as POP except gives you the option of leaving mail on the server. (Outlook or Outlook Express)
  • Web-based e-mail: Always keeps you mail on the server. Does not require a client so it can be accessed using any machine connected to the Internet! (Hotmail, Yahoo, www.lhup.edu)
how do pop and smtp work
How do POP and SMTP work?

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics

is pop mail better than web based e mail
Is POP mail better than Web-based e-mail?
  • Requires e-mail client software
  • Transfers e-mail to your computer
  • Consider the following when deciding:
    • Control
    • Security
    • Travel

Chapter 1: Computer, Internet, Web, and E-Mail Basics