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Brand Management. What is a brand?. A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, design or a combination of the above to identify the goods or service of a seller and differentiate it from the rest of the competitors. When you cannot do this. The product is a commodity. A brand comprises of .

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what is a brand

What is a brand?

A brand is a name, term, sign, symbol, design or a combination of the above to identify the goods or service of a seller and differentiate it from the rest of the competitors

when you cannot do this

When you cannot do this

The product is a commodity

a brand comprises of
A brand comprises of
  • Tangible attributes
  • Intangible attributes


  • Product
  • Packaging
  • Labelling
  • Attributes
  • Functional benefits


  • Quality
  • Emotional benefits
  • Values
  • Culture
  • Image
brand identity

Brand Identity

It is the marketer’s promise to give a set of features, benefits and services consistently

brand building

Brand Building

Involves all the activities that are necessary to nurture a brand into a healthy cash flow stream after launch

what kind of activities
What kind of activities?


  • Product development
  • Packaging
  • Advertising
  • Promotion
  • Sales and distribution
brand equity

Brand Equity

When a commodity becomes a brand, it is said to have equity

what is brand equity
What is brand equity?
  • The premium it can command in the market
  • Difference between the perceived value and the intrinsic value
what happens when equity increases
What happens when equity increases?



Power Brands




what happens when brands have high equity
What happens when brands have high equity?
  • The company can have more leverage with the trade
  • The company can charge a premium on their product
  • The company can have more brand extensions
  • The company can have some defense against price competition
brand loyalty pyramid
Brand Loyalty Pyramid

Committed buyer


Likes the brand. Considers

it a friend

Satisfied buyer. Would

incur costs to switch

Satisfied buyer/no

reason to change



how does one build brands
How does one build brands?
  • Distinguishing it from others – value proposition
  • Brand promise must match brand delivery
the value proposition
The value proposition
  • Broad positioning
  • Specific positioning
  • Value positioning
creating the brand
Creating the brand
  • Choosing a brand name
  • Develop rich associations and promises
  • Managing customer brand contact to meet and exceed expectations
considerations in choosing a brand name
Considerations in choosing a brand name
  • What does the brand name mean?
  • What associations / performance / expectations does it evoke ?
  • What degree of preference does it create?
a brand name should indicate
Product benefits

Product quality

Names easy to remember, recognise, pronounce

Product category


Should not indicate poor meanings in other markets or languages

A brand name should indicate
brand associations
Brand Associations
  • ‘owned word’
  • Slogans
  • Colours
  • Symbols and logos
brand status
Brand Status







Step up


Cash Cow.Need to

Sustain brand building activities

Troubled brand

Product upgradation


New Product

Or Product

should be phased out


brand ambassadors
Brand ambassadors
  • Giving a face and personality to the brand that is expected to be rubbed off from the brand ambassador
brand vitality
Brand Vitality
  • Differentiation in consumer’s need
  • Differentiation relevant to consumer’s need
brand pitfalls
Brand Pitfalls
  • Brand experience must match brand image
  • Calls for managing every brand contact