SHEPARD BROS., INC. Basics of Cleaning. Presented By: Ron Shepard. BASICS OF CLEANING. Cleaning Program Requirements Chemicals and the pH Scale Soil Identification Objectives and Elements of Cleaning and Sanitizing Biofilms Personal Hygiene.
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A C I D S N A l k a l i s /C a u s t i c s
The pH scale is a logarithmic scale, pH = -log [H+], where [H+] is the hydrogen ion concentration. The pH is measured by indicators (colorimetric) or by an electrical apparatus. The scale ranges from 0 to 14. On the scale, a pH of 7.0 is neutral, values below 7.0 are acidic, values above 7.0 are alkaline or basic. A change of one point on the scale represents a tenfold change in acidity or alkalinity.
The pH Scale
13 1,000,000 Increasing
12 100,000 alkaline activity
7 1 (pure water)
2 100,000 Increasing
1 1,000,000 acid activity
Examples: A pH of 2 is 100,000 times more acidic (H+) than a pH of 7.
A pH of 13 is 1,000,000 times more active in alkalinity (OH-) than a pH of 7.
The pH should not be used as an indicator of cleaning ability of cleaning solutions. It is not an accurate measure of the strength of acid or alkaline cleaning solutions. This is illustrated in the graph below for common alkali. pH is generally used in monitoring membrane solutions only.
Note: pH does not change in a linear way with concentration. Even a small error in a pH reading gives large error in concentration. At high caustic concentrations the pH may reach a maximum and not change measurably.
1. Improper rinsing
2. Drop out of minerals from the water supply
3. No acidified rinse
4. Non-compatible alkaline detergent
5. Failure to use acid detergents
1. Acid rinse
2. Use detergent with good water conditioning properties
3. Water softener or treatment
1. Poor rinsing
2. Using a detergent containing metasilicates
3. Water supply
4. Failure to manually clean the outside surface of equipment
1. Complete post rinse
2. Use non-metasilicated detergents
3. Regular effective acid rinse
4. Water treatment
5. Manually clean outside surface of equipment
1. Poor/inadequate rinsing
2. Wrong compound
1. Proper rinsing
2. Proper compound
Cleaning Wheel of H.T.S.T. : Example 1
Cleaning Wheel of H.T.S.T. : Example 2
EQUIPMENT TO CLEANING PROCEDURE CLEANING EQUIP. DETERGENT TYPE
BE CLEANED USED
Closed equipment Circulation of alkali, C.I.P. SYSTEM Low-foam, heavy duty alkaline
circuits... Circulation of acid (Spray balls in vessels) (moderate to strong alkalis),
pasteurizers, silos, tanks, (Usually follows alkali) or “self-circulation” with may include chlorine; Acid
evaporators, separators, balance tank cleaners as follow-up to neutralize
alkaline residue, dissolve minerals
Most processing Spray High pressure, low volume; All types as needed
equipment, bottle high pressure, high volume; heavy duty,moder-
conveyors, floors low pressure, low volume; ate or light duty
and walls high volume for rinsing alkalis, chlorinated
Most processing Foam Foam guns for air injection Almost all types self-
equipment, floors into detergent solutions, foaming products, (using tank, central or or foam boosters
foam-in-place systems) added to detergent solutions
Dismantled equipment Soak with C.O.P. TANK Moderate or light duty alkalis, low-
parts, fittings, etc. agitation foaming, chlorinated or non
separator disks etc. (“push/pull” circulation chlorinated, acid cleaners
pumps or steam agitation)
60 min exposure to disinfectant
90 min exposure
The Power Is In Your Hands To Reduce Bacterial Cross-Contamination
Hand hygiene basin at the Lying-In Women’s Hospital in Vienna, 1847.
Semmelweis’ Hand Hygiene Intervention
Hand antisepsis reduces the frequency of patient infections
Adapted from: Hosp Epidemiol Infect Control, 2nd Edition, 1999.
Bacteria can be transmitted
even if the patient is not infected
The Iceberg Effect