World War I (1914 – 1918)
What? • World War I was the most destructive war up to this point in human history. It was the first truly world wide war and completely changed how wars were fought. • Where? • Mainly fought in Europe, but also to a smaller degree in the European colonies of Africa and Asia and across both the Pacific and Atlantic Ocean. • When? • August 1914 – November 1918 • Who? • All of the countries of Europe are dragged into WWI, along with countries from North America, Asia, and Africa.
WORD WALL conscription propaganda stalemate howitzer casualties attrition unrestricted
Learning Goal • Students will be able to identify the underlying causes of World War I and explain how each contributed to the start of WWI.
Causes of World War I • At the beginning of the 20th century the states of Europe were highly agitated, extremely paranoid, heavily armed, and wildly aggressive. Competition for colonies, massive military build-ups, and nationalistic hysteria had brought all of the major nations of Europe to each other’s throats. All that was needed was a single spark to explode the “powderkeg of Europe”. • That spark takes place in Serbia in 1914 and although the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria is the event which triggers the start of World War I, the problems that lead Europe to this point are much deeper and begin in the 1800’s. • 1. Nationalism • 2. Militarism • 3. Imperialism • 4. The Alliance System
Causes of World War I:Nationalism • Nationalism in Europe during the 1800’s creates and atmosphere of competition and hatred of other nations. The smallest incidents become national insults to be revenged. • Many cultural minorities begin to demand the right to rule themselves. Creates violent revolts that lead to much bigger outbursts of violence. • The assassination of Franz Ferdinand by Serbian nationalists triggers the chain of events that leads to the start of World War I.
Causes of World War I:Imperialism • Competition for colonies around the world created huge rivalries. Jealousy and envy over their rivals’ empires becomes motivation for nations to build larger and larger armies. • Colonies become the ultimate prize in these rivalries and fighting for them becomes common. The resources and wealth available in Africa and Asia leads to violent competition and puts the countries of Europe one step away from war.
Causes of World War I:Militarism • The massive increase in the size of armies creates an atmosphere of paranoia and tension among rival countries. The slightest provocations are settled with violence. Military action becomes the most popular policy when dealing with other nations. • The false sense of invincibility that militarism creates convinces many that war is the only path to greatness and glory for their nation. The use of force becomes a celebrated feeling and a source of pride for many. War is seen as glorious, glamorous, and a necessary part of life.
Causes of World War I:The Alliance System • In order to protect themselves in this era of massive armies, many states ally with other large powerful states in order to deter others from attacking them. This system of deterring violence with the threat of more violence becomes know as the “Balance of Power”. • Each country promises each other protection and support in case of an enemy attack; but as more alliances are created the system becomes more complicated. Smaller countries with less to lose drag larger more dangerous countries into their conflicts.
Essential Question • What were the underlying causes of WWI? • The underlying causes of WWI were _____________________________.
Essential Question • How did each of the underlying causes contribute to the start of WWI? • The underlying cause of ______________________ contributed to the start of WWI by __________________________. • Elaboration • Evidence • 1. • 2.
Learning Scale 4 – I can recall the causes of WWI and explain how each played a part in starting WWI; including citing specific documentation. 3 – I can recall the causes of WWI and explain how each played a part in starting WWI. 2 – I can recall the causes of WWI but cannot explain how each played a part in starting WWI. 1 – I can’t recall the causes of WWI or explain how each played a part in starting WWI.
Learning Goal • Students will be able to identify the ways WWI changed warfare and explain how each one affected the way WWI was fought.
A New Type of War • In 1914, most countries believed that World War I would be over in a few months; but they soon find out that this war will not be like any other they have ever fought. Due to several new factors WWI will not end for a long, bloody 4 years. • Changes in technology, styles of fighting, and the size of warfare make WWI a new, deadlier type of war. • 1. The size of war • 2. New weapons and technology • 3. Trench Warfare • 4. Total War & Propaganda
1. The Size of War • After the Industrial Revolution, populations and their ability to produce increase dramatically. Bigger populations and more factories led to bigger, more massive armies. The armies of WWI are bigger than all of the previous armies, in all the previous wars in human history COMBINED. More people, more weapons, more death, more destruction. • It is the first true world-wide war, being fought in Europe, Africa, Asia, and all of the oceans of the world. By the end of WWI, more than 65 million soldiers from more 30+ countries around the world have fought in some way in World War I.
Central Powers: 22,850,000 • Germany - 11,000,000 Austria-Hungary - 7,800,000 • Ottoman Empire - 2,850,000 Bulgaria - 1,200,000 • Allied Powers: 42,632,000 • Russia - 12,000,000 British Empire - 8,904,000 • France - 8,410,000 Italy - 5,615,000 • United States - 4,744,000 Japan - 800,000 • Romania - 740,000 Serbia - 707,000 • Belgium - 267,000 Greece - 230,000 • Portugal - 65,000 Montenegro - 50,000 * Estimated totals
2. New Weapons & Technology • Leading up to 1914, both sides were prepared to fight WWI using the same tried and tested methods of warfare that they had been using for hundreds of years. However, they were not prepared for the destructive power that newly invented weapons would bring. • These new weapons and technology would lead to numbers of casualties that no one could have imagined before WWI began. In some cases, armies were seeing casualty rates of 90%. • This creates a need to alter the strategies and tactics used to win WWI.
Bolt Action Rifle • Standard soldier’s weapon of WWI • Light – 8 lbs. • Bullets were loaded 8 at a time as clip instead of 1 by 1. • Could fire 10-20 shots/minute. Elite British soldiers were known to be able to fire 25+ shots/minute.
Machine Guns • Very deadly – Accurate up to 200 yards(600 feet) • Could fire between 200-300 shots/minute. • Very heavy – Average 80 lbs. • Needed two or three men to operate, so was not very mobile. Usually stayed in one place and were protected by concrete shelters called “pillboxes”.
Howitzers • Could fire much longer distances than older cannons by arcing their fire over targets. • Came in different sizes, but average howitzers could launch a 400 lb. shell more than ½ a mile. VERY destructive. • Even if not killed by the explosion, the constant use of howitzers caused trauma to the brain and ears called “shell shock”.
Tanks • Not invented until 1917, more than halfway through the war. • Offered a safe way for soldiers to advance across the battlefield. • Big, slow, and often broke down, but were still used by both sides. • Doesn’t become a effective weapon until World War II.
Submarines • First used as a weapon in the American Civil War, but were more dangerous to the crew than the target. • By WWI, become very effective and deadly. Used to sink enemy ships secretly and dive underwater before discovered. • Used mainly by Germany to destroy ships bringing supplies to England and France. German submarines sink over 5000 Allied ships during WWI.
Airplanes • Very new technology at the start of WWI, only used to fly over battles and spy on enemy troops at first. • Eventually discovered how to add guns and bombs and create a new weapon. • Were very fragile and easily damaged, very slow, and could not fly more than a few hundred feet high. • Mainly used to attack stationary targets like buildings or fight other airplanes. Became called “dogfighting” because it reminded people of dogs chasing each other’s tails.
Flamethrowers German flamethrowers defending a trench against a Russian attack. • Invented by Germany in 1915. • Tanks of flammable chemicals are sprayed and ignited creating a wall of flame that stick to enemies. • Very deadly and one the most feared weapons of WWI.
Poison Gas • First used by the French army in 1914. • Grenades filled with dangerous chemicals that would release deadly gas when detonated. • Several types: Mustard Gas – chemical gas stuck to the skin and caused sever chemical burns; Chlorine gas – chemical filled the lungs and caused choking and suffocation; Tear Gas – chemical choked the lungs and burned the eyes causing blindness. • Was feared by everyone in battle because if the direction of the wind changed, the attackers could become the victims of their own poison gas. • Became mostly harmless by the end of WWI after the invention of gas masks.
3. Trench Warfare • In the first few months of the war both sides come to a stalemate. Neither side can advance without severe casualties, but neither side is willing to retreat either. Because of deadly, new technology, new ways of fighting must be adopted. • So both sides begin digging trenches and trench warfare begins. The two sides would pound on each other with their howitzers until they thought the enemy was weakened, and then their soldiers would charge the enemy trench. • If they were unable to capture the enemy trench, they would retreat and try again another day. If they succeeded, the enemy would retreat and dig a new set of trenches to defend.
4. Total War & Propaganda • Because of the size of WWI, countries must produce more supplies, weapons, and men than ever before seen. To do this, many governments must mobilize all of their resources to win the war. When a country is forced to devote all of its energy and resources towards fighting, it becomes known as “total war”. Everyone in that country’s lives are affected by the war and its outcome. • Civilians become part of the war. • Civilian factories are taken over to produce war materials • Governments ration critical materials like food, gasoline, and metals • Many governments begin conscription; a military draft where civilians are chosen to serve in the army • However, because civilians are now part of the war effort, they become a target of the war as well. Land, homes, bridges, factories, and whole cities are targeted during the war. Civilian ships are targeted by submarines. • In all, 6.5 million civilians are killed by fighting, starvation, and disease caused by WWI.
4. Total War & Propaganda • This creates what becomes known as a “war of attrition”. Each army is no longer trying to defeat their enemy in the field; they now are trying to wear down their ability to fight, their numbers, and their willingness to stay in the war. • In order to win this “war of attrition”, both sides ask their people to devote everything towards the war effort. • One of the ways governments were able to convince people to accept these harsh measures was through the widespread use of propaganda. Propaganda is mass produced images, songs, and messages used to promote an idea. • The most commons forms of propaganda during WWI were brochures, posters, and political cartoons aimed at promoting a unified war effort.
Essential Question • What were the ways that WWI changed warfare? • The ways that WWI changed warfare were ____________________________________.
Essential Question • How did each one affect the way WWI was fought? • _______________ affected the way WWI was fought by __________________________. • Elaborate • Evidence • 1. • 2.
Learning Scale 4 – I can explain how WWI changed the nature of warfare and give specific examples of those changes. 3 – I can explain how WWI changed the nature of warfare but not give specific examples of those changes. 2 – I can’t explain how WWI changed the nature of warfare or give specific examples of those changes. 1 – I don’t see any change in the nature of warfare during WWI.
Learning Goal • Students will be able to identify the major events of World War I.