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Prerequisites:. A Pathway to Student Success. Mark Wade Lieu, ASCCC President Jane Patton, ASCCC Vice President Janet Fulks, ASCCC Curriculum Chair. About Prerequisites. . . . “Quiz” yourself!. True or False ?.

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A pathway to student success l.jpg

Prerequisites:

A Pathway to Student Success

Mark Wade Lieu, ASCCC President

Jane Patton, ASCCC Vice President

Janet Fulks, ASCCC Curriculum Chair


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About Prerequisites. . .

“Quiz” yourself!


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True or False ?

Most institutions of higher education in the U.S.A. create prerequisites based upon faculty expertise and content review, without statistical validation.

a. True

b. False


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????

The MALDEF case resulted in a verdict requiring CCC’s to justify and validate prerequisites through content review, statistical analysis and comparability with other similar courses and those requirements.

a. True

b. False


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????

It is difficult to find data that suggest that having college level reading or writing increases student success in transferable general education courses.

a. True

b. False


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????

CSUs and UCs do not require basic skills prerequisites.

a. True

b. False


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????

Students oppose applying prerequisites to courses.

a. True

b. False


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A Little Context. . .

  • RP Letter

  • Basic Skills Initiative

  • Board of Governor’s Motion on Assessment Task Force

  • Assessment Action Planning Group (APG)

  • Legislative Interest


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A Little Background. . .

  • Prerequisites Pre-1990

  • The Role of MALDEF

  • The Revisionist 90s

  • Where we are today



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Prerequisite

“. . . a condition of enrollment that a student is required to meet in order to demonstrate current readiness for enrollment in a course or educational program.”

Title 5 § 55003


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Corequisite

“. . . a condition of enrollment consisting of a course that a student is required to simultaneously take in order to enroll in another course.”


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Advisory

“. . . a condition of enrollment that a student is advised, but not required, to meet before or in conjunction with enrollment in a course or educational program.”


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Statistical Validation

STANDARD RESEARCH METHODS:

1. a correlation coefficient such as the Pearson r

2. a matrix or four-cell table and accompanying chi-square

3. a matrix or four-cell analysis showing net increase in accuracy

From Good Practice for the Implementation of Prerequisites p.5


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Statistical Validation

Goals:

1. Minimize students who pass without the prerequisite

2. Significant chi-square, typically > 3.84 (here P2 = 60, significant at the 0.05 level,

3. Maximize right/wrong ratio, typically $ 2:1 (here 90:10 = 9:1),

4. Maximize incremental gain in success, typically by $ 10% (here before applying the prerequisite 67/100 = 67%, after applying the prerequisite 66/75 = 88%; 21% gain).

From Good Practice for the Implementation of Prerequisites p.5


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Content Review requirements

 i. Involvement of faculty with appropriate expertise;

 ii. Consideration of course objectives set by relevant department(s);

iii. Based on a detailed course syllabus and outline of record, tests, related instructional materials, course format, type and number of examinations, and grading criteria;

 iv. Specification of the body of knowledge and/or skills deemed necessary;

(continued . . . )


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Content Review requirements

  v. Identification and review of knowledge and/or measure skills identified under iv.

vi. Matching of the knowledge and skills in the targeted course and those developed or measured by the prerequisite or corequisite (i.e., the course or assessment identified under v.); and

 vii. Maintain documentation that the above steps were taken.

From The Model District Policy on Prerequisites, Corequisites, and Advisories on Recommended Preparation page 5 Board of Governors September 1993


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Levels of Scrutiny

  • Content Review

  • Plus: data collection and analysis

  • Plus assessment instrument (approved by the Chancellor’s Office)

  • Plus validated cut-off scores

  • Plus multiple measures

  • Plus disproportionate impact study


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Name That Level of Scrutiny!


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Type of Requisite:

Courses in communication or computational skills outside discipline. . .


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Level of Scrutiny:

Content Review

  • Plus: data collection and analysis

  • Plus disproportionate impact study

    The highest level

    Example:

    Math 4A as a Prerequisite for Physics 2A


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Type of Requisite:

Assessment for Placement

(for use within the same discipline). . .


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Level of Scrutiny:

  • Content Review

  • Plus assessment instrument (approved by the Chancellor’s Office)

  • Plus validated cut-off scores

  • Plus multiple measures

  • Plus disproportionate impact study

    Example:

    Score on placement or ESL 63 as prerequisite for ESL 64


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Type of Requisite:

Limitation on Enrollment – Performance courses. . .


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Level of Scrutiny:

  • Other courses are available to meet degree/certificate requirements

  • Plus disproportionate impact study

    Example:

    Audition for Dance 22


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Prerequisites--Principles

  • Assessment of student proficiencies benefits colleges and students’ success

  • Absence of clear minimum expectations does a disservice to students, our institutions, and the state

  • Establishment of prerequisites should be fair and just ---with appeal process per Title 5

    continued. . .


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Principles. . .

  • Faculty have an obligation to establish a learning environment that is conducive to the success of all students.

  • Validation processes that are dependent upon student failure are contrary to aiding their students to achieve their academic goals.

  • College-level courses should expect and require students to use and further develop college-level skills.

    continued. . .


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Principles. . .

7. Prerequisites decisions should be made based on academic considerations, not programmatic or enrollment/apportionment impact.

8. There should be easily identifiable course options for all students – regardless of their skill level.


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Why Prerequisites?

Psychology Success Rates

  • 75.2% with college level reading

  • Only 49.0% without

    --from Bakersfield College

    Total=2,523

    Fall 2001-Summer 2003


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Why Prerequisites?

ECONOMICS SUCCESS RATES

  • 87% with Intermediate Algebra

  • 47% with Elementary Algebra

  • 22% with Pre-algebra

    --from Foothill College

    total=303

    Fall 2008 only


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Why Prerequisites?

Two reading possibilities for transfer level history were explored:

  • Successful completion of reading graduation requirement

  • One level below

    The results…

    from Chaffey College


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What’s stopping us?

  • Validation

  • MALDEF Case

  • Fears

  • Concerns for Our Students


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Discuss Two Options

List the pros and cons :

  • Option #1 Content Review (local)

  • Option #2 Statewide Prerequisites (for certain courses)

  • Record ideas on the worksheet


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Next Steps

  • Academic Senate Spring Plenary Session Resolutions

  • Assessment APG Recommendations

  • Share with local faculty



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