Brief summary of c ognitive views on learning
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Brief summary of c ognitive views on learning. Experiment ( Roediger & McDermott, 1995). Remember following 15 words. Wait for 10 seconds. Recall them !

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Brief summary of c ognitive views on learning

Brief summary of cognitive views on learning


Experiment roediger mcdermott 1995

Experiment (Roediger & McDermott, 1995)

Remember following 15 words.

Wait for 10 seconds.

Recall them!

Construction: when learners perceive separate objects as being a unit, and when they fill in missing pieces in what they are looking at – Malleable memory!!


Experiment roediger mcdermott 19951

Experiment (Roediger & McDermott, 1995)

bed, rest, awake, tired, dream,

wake, snooze, blanket, doze, slumber,

snore, nap, peace, yawn, drowsy


Information processing model of memory

Information-Processing Model of Memory

  • Memory- an organism's ability to process (encode, store, and retrieve) information

    Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968)

    : Computer as a model for our memory

  • Three control processes

    • Encoded- get information into brain

    • Stored- retain that information

      • Sensory memory

      • Short-term memory: Working memory

      • Long-term memory

    • Retrieved- get it back out


Information processing model of memory1

Information-Processing Model of Memory

Unconscious processing

Attention to information

Sensory input (through 5 senses)

Encoding

Stimulus

Sensory

memory

Short-term

memory

(Working M)

Long-term

memory

Retrieving

Forgetting

Forgetting

Forgetting


Sensory memory

Sensory Memory

  • Stores all the stimuli that register on the senses

  • Lasts up to very limited time

Sensory input

Stimulus

Sensory

memory


Sensory memory sm

Sensory Memory (SM)

  • Two types

    • Iconic memory

      • SM for visual input

      • about 0.3 seconds

      • Sperling’s tests (1960s)

    • Echoic memory

      • SM for auditory input

      • about 2 to 3 seconds

    • What is the Function of SM?


Short term memory

Short-term Memory

  • Working M: conscious processing of information

  • Attention is the key

  • Limited capacity (7 ± 2 items)

    • Last about 20 seconds (maximum)

Attention to information & Encoding

Sensory

memory

Short-term

memory

(Working m)

Forgetting


Brief summary of c ognitive views on learning

Memorize the following list of letters.

Ready?

M P T G D K T L R S Y P


Brief summary of c ognitive views on learning

Write down the letters in order.

  • Rehearsal

    • The use of repetition to keep info in STM

      (more than 20 seconds)


Working memory duration

Working Memory Duration


Brief summary of c ognitive views on learning

Memorize the following list of numbers.

Ready?

1 8 1 2 1 9 4 1 1 7 7 6 1 4 9 2 2 0 0 1


Brief summary of c ognitive views on learning

Write down the numbers in order.


Brief summary of c ognitive views on learning

Now, try again…

1812 1941 1776 1492 2001


Long term memory

Long-term Memory

  • (Once information passes from sensory to short-term memory,) it can be encoded into long-term memory

  • Unlimited capacity

Encoding

Short-term

memory

(Working m)

Long-term

memory

Retrieving

Forgetting


Howencoding

HowEncoding

  • Elaboration

    • Craik & Tulving (1975)

      : Semantic processing is more effective (vs. visual or acoustic)

    • Self-reference effect

    • Imagery

  • Organization

    • Chunking: meaningful unit of information

      ex) 7 ± 2 chunks

    • Hierarchical Organization

  • Mnemonics?


Encoding summarized in a hierarchy

Encoding -- Summarized in a Hierarchy


What is in your long term memory

What is in your Long-term Memory?

  • Declarative (Explicit memory)

    • Memories of facts

      • Episodic – personal experiences tied to places & time

      • Semantic – general knowledge

        • Semantic network (ex)

  • Procedural (Implicit memory)

    • Memories of behaviors, skills, etc.

      • Demonstrated through behavior


Retrieval

Retrieval

  • Process that controls flow of information from long-term to working memory store

    • Recall task

    • Recognition task

    • Relearning time


Retrieval explicit memory

Retrieval – Explicit Memory

  • Context-Dependent Memory

    • We are more successful at retrieving memories if we are in the same environment in which we stored them

  • State-Dependent Memory

    • We are more successful at retrieving memories if we are in the same mood as when we stored them


Forgetting

Forgetting

  • Encoding failure

    • Often, we don’t even encode the features necessary to ‘remember’ an object/event

  • Retrieval Failure

    • Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon

  • Interference theory - Forgetting is a result of some memories interfering with others

    • Proactive interference

      • Old memories interfere with ability to remember new memories

    • Retroactive interference

      • New memories interfere with ability to remember old memories


Improving memory

Improving Memory

  • Practice time

    • Distribute your studying over time

  • Depth of processing

    • Spend ‘quality’ time studying

  • Verbal mnemonics

    • Use rhyming or acronyms to reduce the amount of info to be stored

  • Interference

    • Study right before sleeping & review all the material right before the exam

    • Allocate an uninterrupted chunk of time to one course

  • Context reinstatement

    • Try to study in the same environment & mood in which you will be taking the exam


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