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Cognitive Views of Learning. Woolfolk, Chapter 7. Overview. The Cognitive Perspective Information Processing Metacognition Becoming Knowledgeable. Concept Map for Chapter 7. Becoming Knowledgeable. Elements of the Cognitive Perspective. Cognitive Views Of Learning. Metacognition,

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Cognitive Views of Learning

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Cognitive views of learning l.jpg

Cognitive Views of Learning

Woolfolk, Chapter 7

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and BaconCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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Overview

  • The Cognitive Perspective

  • Information Processing

  • Metacognition

  • Becoming Knowledgeable

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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Concept Map for Chapter 7

Becoming

Knowledgeable

Elements of the

Cognitive

Perspective

Cognitive Views

Of Learning

Metacognition,

Regulation,

& Individual

Differences

Information

Processing

Model

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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Comparing Perspectives

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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The Cognitive Perspective

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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Kinds of Knowledge

  • General

  • Domain specific

  • Declarative

  • Procedural

  • Conditional or structural

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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Types of Knowledge & Examples

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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Information Processing Model

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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Terminology

  • Sensory memory

  • Perception

  • Short term memory

  • Long term memory

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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Work Space-

Temporary Storage

Decision

making

Permanent

Storage

The Information Processing System

ExecutiveControl Processes

learn

(save)

Working

Memory

Long-term

memory

Sensory

Memory

Perception

Retrieve

(activate memory)

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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Sensory Memory

  • The five senses

  • Sensory register

  • Large capacity

  • Short duration

  • Contents

  • Roles of attention and perception

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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Gestalt Psychology: Study of Perception

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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Gestalt Terminology

  • Bottom-up processing

  • Top-down processing

  • The role of attention

  • Automaticity

  • Lesson for teachers

  • See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 247

Wholeness

Or

pattern

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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Working Memory

  • Capacity: 5 to 9 separate items

  • Articulatory loop rehearsal system

  • Duration: 5 to 20 seconds

  • Rehearsal can increase duration

    • Maintenance rehearsal

    • Elaborative rehearsal

    • Chunking

  • Forgetting

    • Interference

    • Decay

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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Long Term Memory

  • Storage takes more time & effort

  • Unlimited capacity

  • Unlimited duration

  • Contains visual or verbal or a combination of codes

  • Retrieval may be troublesome

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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Short Term

Very fast input

Limited capacity

5 – 20 seconds duration

Contains words, images, ideas, sentences

Immediate retrieval

Long Term

Relatively slow input

Practically unlimited capacity

Practically unlimited duration

Contains networks, schemata

Retrieval depends on connections

Comparison of Short- & Long Term Memory

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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Contents of Memory

Semantic Memory

  • Propositions & propositional networks

  • Images

  • Story grammar

  • Event schema / script

  • Images

  • Schemas (schemata)

  • Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Contents of Memory

    • Story grammar

    • Script

    • Episodic memory

    • Procedural memory

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Types of Memory

    Yesterday’s

    golf

    outing

    Episodic

    Semantic

    The concept

    airplane

    How to

    give a

    presentation

    Procedural

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    LTM Storage Strategies

    • Elaboration

    • Organization

    • Context

    • Levels of processing

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Retrieval & Forgetting

    • Spread of activation

    • Reconstruction

    • Decay

    • Interference

    • See Guidelines, Woolfolk p. 259

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Reflection Questions

    • What you are thinking right now…..in which level of memory is it being held?

    • How is information stored in long term memory?

    • Why do people forget? What are the possible causes?

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Metacognition, Regulation, &Individual Differences

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Metacognitive Knowledge

    • Awareness of your own thinking processes

      • Knowing what you know (declarative knowledge)

      • Knowing how to use what you know (procedural knowledge)

      • Knowing when and why to use what you know (conditional knowledge)

    • Planning

    • Monitoring

    • Evaluation

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Differences in Metacognition

    • Developmental differences

      • Capacity

      • Strategy

      • Organization

    • Individual differences

      • Efficiency

      • Differences in ability

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Differences in Long-Term Memory

    • Domain-specific declarative knowledge

    • Procedural knowledge

    • Personal interest

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Becoming Knowledgeable:Some Basic Principles

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Learning Declarative Knowledge

    • Rote memorization

    • Serial position effect

    • Part learning

    • Distributed practice

    • Massed practice

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Mnemonics

    • Loci method

    • Peg type: keyword, peg word, acronyms

    • Chaining

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Attention!!

    • Making it meaningful : Single best method for aiding memory

    See Point▼Counterpoint Woolfolk, p. 267

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Making It Meaningful

    • Relating to previous knowledge

    • Relating to students’ experiences

    • Clarifying unfamiliar terms

    • Give examples, illustrations, analogies from students’ view

    • Use humor, emotion, novelty

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Procedural & Conditional Knowledge

    • Automated basic skills

      • Cognitive

      • Associative

      • Autonomous

    • Prerequisite knowledge

    • Practice with feedback

      • Leads to condition-action rules (productions)

    • Domain-specific strategies

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Learning Outside School

    • Encouraging family and community support

    • See Family and Community Partnerships, Woolfolk, p. 270

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Reflection Questions

    • Contrast cognitive and behavioral views of learning. What is learned? What is the role of reinforcement?

    • How does knowledge affect learning?

    • Compare declarative, procedural, and conditional knowledge.

    • Give two explanations for perception.

    • How is information retained in working memory?

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Reflection Questions

    • How is information represented in long-term memory? What role do schemas play?

    • What learning processes improve long-term memory?

    • Why do we forget?

    • What are the three metacognitive skills?

    • Describe some individual differences in metacognition.

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Reflection Questions

    • How can using better metacognitive strategies improve children’s memories?

    • Describe three ways to develop declarative knowledge.

    • Describe some procedures for developing procedural knowledge.

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    Summary

    • The Cognitive Perspective

    • Information Processing

    • Metacognition

    • Becoming Knowledgeable

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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    End Chapter 7

    Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon


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