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Cognitive Views of Learning. Woolfolk, Chapter 7. Overview. The Cognitive Perspective Information Processing Metacognition Becoming Knowledgeable. Concept Map for Chapter 7. Becoming Knowledgeable. Elements of the Cognitive Perspective. Cognitive Views Of Learning. Metacognition,

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cognitive views of learning

Cognitive Views of Learning

Woolfolk, Chapter 7

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and BaconCopyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

overview
Overview
  • The Cognitive Perspective
  • Information Processing
  • Metacognition
  • Becoming Knowledgeable

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

concept map for chapter 7
Concept Map for Chapter 7

Becoming

Knowledgeable

Elements of the

Cognitive

Perspective

Cognitive Views

Of Learning

Metacognition,

Regulation,

& Individual

Differences

Information

Processing

Model

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

comparing perspectives
Comparing Perspectives

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

the cognitive perspective
The Cognitive Perspective

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

kinds of knowledge
Kinds of Knowledge
  • General
  • Domain specific
  • Declarative
  • Procedural
  • Conditional or structural

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

types of knowledge examples
Types of Knowledge & Examples

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

information processing model
Information Processing Model

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

terminology
Terminology
  • Sensory memory
  • Perception
  • Short term memory
  • Long term memory

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

slide10

Work Space-

Temporary Storage

Decision

making

Permanent

Storage

The Information Processing System

ExecutiveControl Processes

learn

(save)

Working

Memory

Long-term

memory

Sensory

Memory

Perception

Retrieve

(activate memory)

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

sensory memory
Sensory Memory
  • The five senses
  • Sensory register
  • Large capacity
  • Short duration
  • Contents
  • Roles of attention and perception

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

gestalt psychology study of perception
Gestalt Psychology: Study of Perception

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

gestalt terminology
Gestalt Terminology
  • Bottom-up processing
  • Top-down processing
  • The role of attention
  • Automaticity
  • Lesson for teachers
  • See Guidelines, Woolfolk, p. 247

Wholeness

Or

pattern

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

working memory
Working Memory
  • Capacity: 5 to 9 separate items
  • Articulatory loop rehearsal system
  • Duration: 5 to 20 seconds
  • Rehearsal can increase duration
    • Maintenance rehearsal
    • Elaborative rehearsal
    • Chunking
  • Forgetting
    • Interference
    • Decay

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

long term memory
Long Term Memory
  • Storage takes more time & effort
  • Unlimited capacity
  • Unlimited duration
  • Contains visual or verbal or a combination of codes
  • Retrieval may be troublesome

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

comparison of short long term memory
Short Term

Very fast input

Limited capacity

5 – 20 seconds duration

Contains words, images, ideas, sentences

Immediate retrieval

Long Term

Relatively slow input

Practically unlimited capacity

Practically unlimited duration

Contains networks, schemata

Retrieval depends on connections

Comparison of Short- & Long Term Memory

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

contents of memory
Contents of Memory

Semantic Memory

    • Propositions & propositional networks
    • Images
    • Story grammar
    • Event schema / script
  • Images
  • Schemas (schemata)

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

contents of memory18
Contents of Memory
  • Story grammar
  • Script
  • Episodic memory
  • Procedural memory

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

slide19

Types of Memory

Yesterday’s

golf

outing

Episodic

Semantic

The concept

airplane

How to

give a

presentation

Procedural

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ltm storage strategies
LTM Storage Strategies
  • Elaboration
  • Organization
  • Context
  • Levels of processing

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

retrieval forgetting
Retrieval & Forgetting
  • Spread of activation
  • Reconstruction
  • Decay
  • Interference
  • See Guidelines, Woolfolk p. 259

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

reflection questions
Reflection Questions
  • What you are thinking right now…..in which level of memory is it being held?
  • How is information stored in long term memory?
  • Why do people forget? What are the possible causes?

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

metacognitive knowledge
Metacognitive Knowledge
  • Awareness of your own thinking processes
    • Knowing what you know (declarative knowledge)
    • Knowing how to use what you know (procedural knowledge)
    • Knowing when and why to use what you know (conditional knowledge)
  • Planning
  • Monitoring
  • Evaluation

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

differences in metacognition
Differences in Metacognition
  • Developmental differences
    • Capacity
    • Strategy
    • Organization
  • Individual differences
    • Efficiency
    • Differences in ability

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

differences in long term memory
Differences in Long-Term Memory
  • Domain-specific declarative knowledge
  • Procedural knowledge
  • Personal interest

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becoming knowledgeable some basic principles
Becoming Knowledgeable:Some Basic Principles

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learning declarative knowledge
Learning Declarative Knowledge
  • Rote memorization
  • Serial position effect
  • Part learning
  • Distributed practice
  • Massed practice

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mnemonics
Mnemonics
  • Loci method
  • Peg type: keyword, peg word, acronyms
  • Chaining

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attention
Attention!!
  • Making it meaningful : Single best method for aiding memory

See Point▼Counterpoint Woolfolk, p. 267

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

making it meaningful
Making It Meaningful
  • Relating to previous knowledge
  • Relating to students’ experiences
  • Clarifying unfamiliar terms
  • Give examples, illustrations, analogies from students’ view
  • Use humor, emotion, novelty

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

procedural conditional knowledge
Procedural & Conditional Knowledge
  • Automated basic skills
    • Cognitive
    • Associative
    • Autonomous
  • Prerequisite knowledge
  • Practice with feedback
    • Leads to condition-action rules (productions)
  • Domain-specific strategies

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

learning outside school
Learning Outside School
  • Encouraging family and community support
  • See Family and Community Partnerships, Woolfolk, p. 270

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

reflection questions34
Reflection Questions
  • Contrast cognitive and behavioral views of learning. What is learned? What is the role of reinforcement?
  • How does knowledge affect learning?
  • Compare declarative, procedural, and conditional knowledge.
  • Give two explanations for perception.
  • How is information retained in working memory?

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

reflection questions35
Reflection Questions
  • How is information represented in long-term memory? What role do schemas play?
  • What learning processes improve long-term memory?
  • Why do we forget?
  • What are the three metacognitive skills?
  • Describe some individual differences in metacognition.

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

reflection questions36
Reflection Questions
  • How can using better metacognitive strategies improve children’s memories?
  • Describe three ways to develop declarative knowledge.
  • Describe some procedures for developing procedural knowledge.

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

summary
Summary
  • The Cognitive Perspective
  • Information Processing
  • Metacognition
  • Becoming Knowledgeable

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

end chapter 7
End Chapter 7

Copyright 2001 by Allyn and Bacon

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