Chapters 11 & 14
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Chapters 11 & 14. Empty slide to keep flashcards in order. 1. Who is named the “ Father of Genetics ?” 2. Why did he use pea plants? . 1. Gregor Mendel 2. To study the inheritance of traits a nd they reproduced quickly. What is pure bred, true breeding, or homozygous mean?

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1. Who is named the “Father of Genetics?”

2. Why did he use pea plants?

1. Gregor Mendel

2. To study the inheritance of traits

and they reproduced quickly

What is pure bred, true breeding, or homozygous mean?

What type of offspring results when you cross two pure “true” breedingparents with different traits?

What are the offspring of two parents called?

1. Both alleles are either dominant or recessive

RR or rr

2. All hybrid (Rr) offspring result

3. F1 generation

R parents self-pollinate? r







What is parents self-pollinate? probability?

What is the probability of getting heads when you flip a penny?

Probability parents self-pollinate? : The chance of something happening!

½ or 50%

The higher the number of trials you perform, the more likely you are to get the expected outcome (probability).

½ heads, ½ tails

If you toss a coin 6 times in a row, what is the probability it will land heads all 6 times?

½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½

= 1/64

What is the “Principle of it will land heads all 6 times?Independent Assortment?”

During gamete formation, it will land heads all 6 times?genes for different traits separate without influencing the other.

Be able to define: it will land heads all 6 times?

Compete Dominance

Incomplete Dominance


Complete Dominance it will land heads all 6 times?

The dominant trait (G) over shadows the recessive trait (g) and only the dominant trait shows up in the phenotype.

Incomplete Dominance

Neither trait is dominant over the other and a new trait is displayed.

Red flowers crossed with white flowers make pink flowers.


Both traits are equally displayed and neither is dominant over the other.

ABO blood types: A blood x B blood =

AB blood

Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of each blood type: it will land heads all 6 times?

AB has same genotype and phenotype

What are it will land heads all 6 times?polygenic traits?

What are it will land heads all 6 times?polygenic traits?

Traits that have a wide variety of color ranges such as eye colors, hair color, skin color.

How many different gametes would you get from the following parent?

A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h

How many different gametes would you get from the following parent?

A A B bC c D dE E F FG g H h

1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 1 x 1 x 2 x 2 =

32 gametes

Know the steps of MEIOSIS I and II parent?and the formation of gametes (sex cells)!



1 Egg and 3 polar bodies are produced

4 Sperm are produced

The chromatids pull apart during Meiosis I parent?I

The paired, homologous chromosomes come together during Meiosis I to make


Which cross over and share their genes

4 genetically different cells result at the end of Meiosis

Haploid =one set of chromosomes

What is this called? parent?

What 4 things are shown from this picture?

  • What is this called? parent?Karyotype

  • Shows:

  • Autosomes= all chromosomes except sex chromosomes # 1 - 22 chromosome pairs

  • Sex Chromosomes

  • (XX female or XY male) # 23 pair

  • Homologous Chromosomes = chromosomes that code for the same traits

  • Inherited Disorders (ex: Down’s, Turner’s, Kleinfelter’s, Super males)

What is parent?non-disjunction?

Non-disjunction parent?–When chromosome pairs don’t separate during Meiosis

Can involve all types of chromosomes (sex, autosomes, homologous)

Down’s Syndrome parent?(Trisomy 21)


Who determines the sex of the offspring? pair?

Mother or Father


What is probability of getting a girl? A boy?

Father pair?

determines sex of offspring

He provides either an X or a Y to pair up with the mother’s X to make a boy or girl

50% chance of Boy 50% chance of Girl

Normal Male pair?

Normal Female

Female with Trait

Carrier Female

Male with Trait

Carrier Male

Line = Marriage

Pedigree Chart = shows how a trait is passed from one generation to the next.

3 Generations

Be able to describe the differences between: pair?


Asexual andSexual Reproduction

Know the pair?term Sex-linked genes/traits and how the key and Punnett square would look. What chromosome carries these types of traits?

  • Sex-linked gene/trait pair?– Traits linked to sex chromosomes such as hemophilia or colorblindness

  • Only carried on X

  • Y doesn’t carry

  • traits.


Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: pair?

  • Allele

  • Gametes

  • Genes

  • Genetics

  • Karyotype

  • Pedigree

  • Probability

  • Punnett Square

  • Allele pair?- Different forms of a gene

  • Gametes- Sex Cells (egg & sperm)

  • Gene- Part of a chromosome; codes for traits

  • Genetics- Study of how traits are passed generation to generation

  • Karyotype- Picture of all chromosomes matched up (looking for abnormal # of chromosomes)

  • Pedigree- Tool to figure out possible outcomes

  • Probability - Chance of something happening-

  • Punnett Square- Chart showing probability

Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: pair?

  • Dominant

  • Recessive

  • Genotype

  • Phenotype

  • Heterozygous

  • Homozygous

  • Trait

  • Homologous

  • Dominant pair? – Gene whose effect masks the partner (recessive) trait

  • Recessive – Gene whose effect is masked by partner (dominant) trait

  • Genotype – Genetic makeup of organism

  • Phenotype – Trait expressed “physical” looks

  • Heterozygous – Pair of different alleles (Rr)

  • Homozygous – Pair of same kind of alleles (RR) (rr)

  • Trait – Inherited characteristic

  • Homologous – Pair of same kind of chromosomes

Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: pair?

  • Co-dominance

  • Incomplete dominance

  • Diploid

  • Haploid

  • Independent Assortment

  • Non-disjunction

  • Segregation

  • Co-dominance pair? – Both alleles expressed EQUALLY

  • Incomplete dominance – Blending of traits

  • Diploid – Having 2 sets of chromosomes

  • Haploid – Having 1 set of chromosomes

  • Independent Assortment – Genes that separate have no effect on the other’s inheritance

  • Non-disjunction – When chromosomes don’t separate

  • Segregation – Separation of alleles

Understand which is the pair?P, F1, F2 generations and how you get each.

  • Know how to do the following types of crosses: pair?

  • Monohybrid Cross

  • Dihybrid Cross

  • Incomplete Dominance

  • Sex-linked Cross

  • Must show key, parents’ genotypes, possible gametes, Punnett square, genotypes and phenotypes of offspring