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Chapters 11 & 14. Empty slide to keep flashcards in order. 1. Who is named the “ Father of Genetics ?” 2. Why did he use pea plants?. 1. Gregor Mendel 2. To study the inheritance of traits a nd they reproduced quickly. What is pure bred, true breeding, or homozygous mean?

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1. Who is named the “Father of Genetics?”

2. Why did he use pea plants?


1. Gregor Mendel

2. To study the inheritance of traits

and they reproduced quickly


What is pure bred, true breeding, or homozygous mean?

What type of offspring results when you cross two pure “true” breedingparents with different traits?

What are the offspring of two parents called?


Both alleles are either dominant or recessive AA or aa

All hybrid (Aa) offspring result

F1 generation Aa



Rr parents x Rr

R r

R

r

RR

Rr

Rr

rr

Genotype Ratio: 1 RR: 2 Rr: 1 rr

Phenotype Ratio: 3 Round: 1 Wrinkled


What is parents probability?

What is the probability of getting heads when you flip a penny?


Probability parents : The chance of something happening!

½ or 50%



The higher the number of trials you perform, the more likely you are to get the expected outcome (probability).

½ heads, ½ tails



If you toss a coin it will land heads for all 6 tosses?6 times in a row, what is the probability it will land heads for all 6 tosses?

½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½

= 1/64


What is the “Principle of it will land heads for all 6 tosses?Independent Assortment?”


During gamete formation, it will land heads for all 6 tosses?genes for different traits separate without influencing the other.

Foil each parent

to get 4 gametes

G g Y y

GY

Gy

gY

gy


Be able to define: it will land heads for all 6 tosses?

Compete Dominance

Incomplete Dominance

Co-Dominance


Complete Dominance it will land heads for all 6 tosses?

The dominant trait (G) over shadows the recessive trait (g) and only the dominant trait shows up in the phenotype.

Incomplete Dominance

Neither trait is dominant over the other and a new trait is displayed. BLENDING!!!

Red flowers crossed with white flowers make pink flowers.

Co-Dominance

Both traits are equally displayed and neither is dominant over the other.

ABO blood types: A blood x B blood =

AB blood


  • Describe the it will land heads for all 6 tosses?genotypes and phenotypes of each blood type:

    • Type A

    • Type B

    • Type AB

    • Type O


Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of each blood type: it will land heads for all 6 tosses?

AB has same genotype and phenotype


What are it will land heads for all 6 tosses?polygenic traits?


What are it will land heads for all 6 tosses?polygenic traits?

Traits that have a wide variety of color ranges such as eye colors, hair color, skin color.


How many different gametes would you get from the following parent?

A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h


First determine how many different letters are there for parent? each letter type then multiply!

A A B bC cD dE EF FG gH h

1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 1 x 1 x 2 x 2 =

32 gametes


Can this parent parent? AaBBccDdeeFfGgHH

have a child with the following genotype? Why or why not?

A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h


Can this parent parent? AaBBccDdeeFfGgHH

have a child with the following genotype? Why?

NO, because the parent would need to have a big E in their genotype in order for the child to have 2 EE’s.

A A B b C c D dE EF F G g H h


Know what forms from the sex cells in females and males! parent?

Female

Male

4 Sperm are produced

1 Egg and 3 polar bodies are produced


Know the stages of Meiosis I & II parent?

The chromatids pull apart during Meiosis I I

The paired, homologous chromosomes come together during Meiosis I to make

Tetrads

4 genetically different cells result at the end of Meiosis

Haploid =one set of chromosomes


When does crossing over occur during parent? Meiosis?

Why is this important?


During Prophase I parent?

Important

for

GENETIC

DIVERSITY!!


What is this picture called? parent?

What 4 things are shown from this picture?


  • What is this called? parent? Karyotype

  • Shows:

  • Autosomes= all chromosomes # 1 - 22 chromosome pairs (not sex chromosomes)

  • Sex Chromosomes

  • (XX= female or XY= male) # 23 pair

  • Homologous Chromosomes = chromosomes that code for the same traits and pair up with each other

  • Inherited Disorders (ex: Down’s, Turner’s, Kleinfelter’s, Super males/females)


What is parent? non-disjunction?


Non-disjunction parent? –When chromosome pairs don’t separate properly during Meiosis I

Can involve all types of chromosomes (sex, autosomes, homologous)



Down’s Syndrome parent? (Trisomy 21)

#21






Who determines the sex of the offspring? parent?

Mother or Father

Why?

What is probability of getting a girl? A boy?


Father parent?

determines sex of offspring

He provides either an X or a Y to pair up with the mother’s X to make a boy or girl

50% chance of Boy 50% chance of Girl



Normal Male parent?

Normal Female

Female with Trait

Carrier Female

Male with Trait

Carrier Male

Line = Marriage

Pedigree Chart = shows how a trait is passed from one generation to the next.

3 Generations


Be able to describe the differences between: parent?

MeiosisandMitosis

Be able to describe the advantages and disadvantages between:

Asexual andSexual Reproduction


Know the parent? term Sex-linked genes/traits and how the key and Punnett square would look. What chromosome carries these types of traits?

XBXb x XbY

female carrier x male colorblind

?

?

Phenotypes:

1 Female/Carrier

1 Female/Colorblind

1 Male/Normal

1 Male/Colorblind


Know the parent? term Sex-linked genes/traits and how the key and Punnett square would look. What chromosome carries these types of traits?

  • Sex-linked gene/trait–Traits linked to sex chromosomes such as hemophilia or colorblindness

XBXb x XbY

female carrier x male colorblind

Phenotypes:

1 Female/Carrier

1 Female/Colorblind

1 Male/Normal

1 Male/Colorblind

  • Sex-linked traits only carried on X

  • Y doesn’t carry traits


Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: parent?

  • Allele

  • Gametes

  • Genes

  • Genetics

  • Karyotype

  • Pedigree

  • Probability

  • Punnett Square


  • Allele parent? - Different forms of a gene

  • Gametes- Sex Cells (egg & sperm)

  • Gene- Part of a chromosome; codes for traits

  • Genetics- Study of how traits are passed generation to generation

  • Karyotype- Picture of all chromosomes matched up - looking for sex and the presence of abnormal # of chromosomes

  • Pedigree- Family tree (picture) shows passing of trait from one generation to the next generation

  • Probability - Chance of something happening

  • Punnett Square- Chart showing offspring’s trait probabilities


Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: parent?

  • Dominant

  • Recessive

  • Genotype

  • Phenotype

  • Heterozygous

  • Homozygous

  • Trait

  • Homologous


  • Dominant parent? – Gene whose effect masks the partner (recessive) trait

  • Recessive – Gene whose effect is masked by partner (dominant) trait

  • Genotype – Genetic makeup of organism (letters)

  • Phenotype – Trait expressed “physical” looks

  • Heterozygous – Pair of different alleles (Rr)

  • Homozygous – Pair of same kind of alleles (RR) (rr)

  • Trait – Inherited characteristic (feature)

  • Homologous – Pair of same kind of chromosomes


Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms: parent?

  • Co-dominance

  • Incomplete dominance

  • Diploid

  • Haploid

  • Independent Assortment

  • Non-disjunction

  • Segregation


  • Co-dominance parent? – Both alleles expressed EQUALLY

  • Incomplete dominance – Blending of traits

  • Diploid – Having 2 sets of chromosomes

  • Haploid – Having 1 set of chromosomes

  • Independent Assortment – Genes that separate have no effect on the other’s inheritance

  • Non-disjunction – When chromosomes don’t separate

  • Segregation – Separation of alleles


Understand which is the parent? P, F1, F2 generations and how you get each.


  • Know how to do the following types of crosses: parent?

  • Monohybrid Cross

  • Dihybrid Cross

  • Incomplete Dominance Cross

  • Sex-linked Cross

  • Must show key, parents’ genotypes, possible gametes, Punnett square, genotypes and phenotypes of offspring


Doing the different types of parent? Punnett Squares!


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