Chapters 11 & 14
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Chapters 11 & 14. Empty slide to keep flashcards in order. 1. Who is named the “ Father of Genetics ?” 2. Why did he use pea plants?. 1. Gregor Mendel 2. To study the inheritance of traits a nd they reproduced quickly. What is pure bred, true breeding, or homozygous mean?

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Chapters 11 & 14

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Chapters 11 14

Chapters 11 & 14


Chapters 11 14

Empty slide to keep flashcards in order


Chapters 11 14

1. Who is named the “Father of Genetics?”

2. Why did he use pea plants?


Chapters 11 14

1. Gregor Mendel

2. To study the inheritance of traits

and they reproduced quickly


Chapters 11 14

What is pure bred, true breeding, or homozygous mean?

What type of offspring results when you cross two pure “true” breedingparents with different traits?

What are the offspring of two parents called?


Chapters 11 14

Both alleles are either dominant or recessive AA or aa

All hybrid (Aa) offspring result

F1 generationAa


Chapters 11 14

What results when the offspring (F1) of true breeding parents self-pollinate?


Chapters 11 14

Rr x Rr

Rr

R

r

RR

Rr

Rr

rr

Genotype Ratio: 1 RR: 2 Rr: 1 rr

Phenotype Ratio: 3 Round: 1 Wrinkled


Chapters 11 14

What is probability?

What is the probability of getting heads when you flip a penny?


Chapters 11 14

Probability: The chance of something happening!

½ or 50%


Chapters 11 14

Why did we keep increasing the number of flips of our penny in the “Coin Toss” lab?


Chapters 11 14

The higher the number of trials you perform, the more likely you are to get the expected outcome (probability).

½ heads, ½ tails


Chapters 11 14

If you toss a coin 6 times in a row, what is the probability it will land heads for all 6 tosses?


Chapters 11 14

If you toss a coin 6 times in a row, what is the probability it will land heads for all 6 tosses?

½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½

= 1/64


Chapters 11 14

What is the “Principle of Independent Assortment?”


Chapters 11 14

During gamete formation, genes for different traits separate without influencing the other.

Foil each parent

to get 4 gametes

G g Y y

GY

Gy

gY

gy


Chapters 11 14

Be able to define:

Compete Dominance

Incomplete Dominance

Co-Dominance


Chapters 11 14

Complete Dominance

The dominant trait (G) over shadows the recessive trait (g) and only the dominant trait shows up in the phenotype.

Incomplete Dominance

Neither trait is dominant over the other and a new trait is displayed. BLENDING!!!

Red flowers crossed with white flowers make pink flowers.

Co-Dominance

Both traits are equally displayed and neither is dominant over the other.

ABO blood types: A blood x B blood =

AB blood


Chapters 11 14

  • Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of each blood type:

    • Type A

    • Type B

    • Type AB

    • Type O


Chapters 11 14

Describe the genotypes and phenotypes of each blood type:

AB has same genotype and phenotype


Chapters 11 14

What are polygenic traits?


Chapters 11 14

What are polygenic traits?

Traits that have a wide variety of color ranges such as eye colors, hair color, skin color.


Chapters 11 14

How many different gametes would you get from the following parent?

A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h


Chapters 11 14

First determine how many different letters are there for each letter type then multiply!

A A B bC cD dE EF FG gH h

1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 1 x 1 x 2 x 2 =

32 gametes


Chapters 11 14

Can this parentAaBBccDdeeFfGgHH

have a child with the following genotype? Why or why not?

A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h


Chapters 11 14

Can this parent AaBBccDdeeFfGgHH

have a child with the following genotype? Why?

NO, because the parent would need to have a big E in their genotype in order for the child to have 2 EE’s.

A A B b C c D dE EF F G g H h


Chapters 11 14

Know what forms from the sex cells in females and males!

Female

Male

4 Sperm are produced

1 Egg and 3 polar bodies are produced


Chapters 11 14

Know the stages of Meiosis I & II

The chromatids pull apart during Meiosis I I

The paired, homologous chromosomes come together during Meiosis I to make

Tetrads

4 genetically different cells result at the end of Meiosis

Haploid =one set of chromosomes


Chapters 11 14

When does crossing over occur during Meiosis?

Why is this important?


Chapters 11 14

During Prophase I

Important

for

GENETIC

DIVERSITY!!


Chapters 11 14

What is this picture called?

What 4 things are shown from this picture?


Chapters 11 14

  • What is this called? Karyotype

  • Shows:

  • Autosomes= all chromosomes # 1 - 22 chromosome pairs (not sex chromosomes)

  • Sex Chromosomes

  • (XX= female or XY= male) # 23 pair

  • Homologous Chromosomes = chromosomes that code for the same traits and pair up with each other

  • Inherited Disorders (ex: Down’s, Turner’s, Kleinfelter’s, Super males/females)


Chapters 11 14

What is non-disjunction?


Chapters 11 14

Non-disjunction–When chromosome pairs don’t separate properly during Meiosis I

Can involve all types of chromosomes (sex, autosomes, homologous)


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What chromosomal disorder is this on the #21 pair?

#21


Chapters 11 14

Down’s Syndrome (Trisomy 21)

#21


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What chromosomal disorder is this on the sex chromosome?

XXY


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Kleinfelter’s Syndrome

XXY


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What chromosomal disorder is this on the sex chromosome?

XO


Chapters 11 14

Turner’s Syndrome

XO


Chapters 11 14

Who determines the sex of the offspring?

Mother or Father

Why?

What is probability of getting a girl? A boy?


Chapters 11 14

Father

determines sex of offspring

He provides either an X or a Y to pair up with the mother’s X to make a boy or girl

50% chance of Boy 50% chance of Girl


Chapters 11 14

  • What is this picture called?

  • What do each of the shapes and shading combinations represent?

  • How many generations are shown?


Chapters 11 14

Normal Male

Normal Female

Female with Trait

Carrier Female

Male with Trait

Carrier Male

Line = Marriage

Pedigree Chart = shows how a trait is passed from one generation to the next.

3 Generations


Chapters 11 14

Be able to describe the differences between:

MeiosisandMitosis

Be able to describe the advantages and disadvantages between:

Asexual andSexual Reproduction


Chapters 11 14

Know the term Sex-linked genes/traits and how the key and Punnett square would look. What chromosome carries these types of traits?

XBXb x XbY

female carrier x male colorblind

?

?

Phenotypes:

1 Female/Carrier

1 Female/Colorblind

1 Male/Normal

1 Male/Colorblind


Chapters 11 14

Know the term Sex-linked genes/traits and how the key and Punnett square would look. What chromosome carries these types of traits?

  • Sex-linked gene/trait–Traits linked to sex chromosomes such as hemophilia or colorblindness

XBXb x XbY

female carrier x male colorblind

Phenotypes:

1 Female/Carrier

1 Female/Colorblind

1 Male/Normal

1 Male/Colorblind

  • Sex-linked traits only carried on X

  • Y doesn’t carry traits


Chapters 11 14

Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms:

  • Allele

  • Gametes

  • Genes

  • Genetics

  • Karyotype

  • Pedigree

  • Probability

  • Punnett Square


Chapters 11 14

  • Allele- Different forms of a gene

  • Gametes- Sex Cells (egg & sperm)

  • Gene- Part of a chromosome; codes for traits

  • Genetics- Study of how traits are passed generation to generation

  • Karyotype- Picture of all chromosomes matched up - looking for sex and the presence of abnormal # of chromosomes

  • Pedigree- Family tree (picture) shows passing of trait from one generation to the next generation

  • Probability - Chance of something happening

  • Punnett Square- Chart showing offspring’s trait probabilities


Chapters 11 14

Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms:

  • Dominant

  • Recessive

  • Genotype

  • Phenotype

  • Heterozygous

  • Homozygous

  • Trait

  • Homologous


Chapters 11 14

  • Dominant – Gene whose effect masks the partner (recessive) trait

  • Recessive – Gene whose effect is masked by partner (dominant) trait

  • Genotype – Genetic makeup of organism (letters)

  • Phenotype – Trait expressed “physical” looks

  • Heterozygous – Pair of different alleles (Rr)

  • Homozygous – Pair of same kind of alleles (RR) (rr)

  • Trait – Inherited characteristic (feature)

  • Homologous – Pair of same kind of chromosomes


Chapters 11 14

Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms:

  • Co-dominance

  • Incomplete dominance

  • Diploid

  • Haploid

  • Independent Assortment

  • Non-disjunction

  • Segregation


Chapters 11 14

  • Co-dominance – Both alleles expressed EQUALLY

  • Incomplete dominance – Blending of traits

  • Diploid – Having 2 sets of chromosomes

  • Haploid – Having 1 set of chromosomes

  • Independent Assortment – Genes that separate have no effect on the other’s inheritance

  • Non-disjunction – When chromosomes don’t separate

  • Segregation – Separation of alleles


Chapters 11 14

Understand which is the P, F1, F2 generations and how you get each.


Chapters 11 14

  • Know how to do the following types of crosses:

  • Monohybrid Cross

  • Dihybrid Cross

  • Incomplete Dominance Cross

  • Sex-linked Cross

  • Must show key, parents’ genotypes, possible gametes, Punnett square, genotypes and phenotypes of offspring


Chapters 11 14

Doing the different types of Punnett Squares!


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