Chapters 11 &amp; 14

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# Chapters 11 & 14 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Chapters 11 &amp; 14. Empty slide to keep flashcards in order. 1. Who is named the “ Father of Genetics ?” 2. Why did he use pea plants?. 1. Gregor Mendel 2. To study the inheritance of traits a nd they reproduced quickly. What is pure bred, true breeding, or homozygous mean?

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Presentation Transcript

1. Who is named the “Father of Genetics?”

2. Why did he use pea plants?

1. Gregor Mendel

2. To study the inheritance of traits

and they reproduced quickly

What is pure bred, true breeding, or homozygous mean?

What type of offspring results when you cross two pure “true” breedingparents with different traits?

What are the offspring of two parents called?

Both alleles are either dominant or recessive AA or aa

All hybrid (Aa) offspring result

F1 generation Aa

Rr x Rr

R r

R

r

RR

Rr

Rr

rr

Genotype Ratio: 1 RR: 2 Rr: 1 rr

Phenotype Ratio: 3 Round: 1 Wrinkled

What is probability?

What is the probability of getting heads when you flip a penny?

The higher the number of trials you perform, the more likely you are to get the expected outcome (probability).

If you toss a coin 6 times in a row, what is the probability it will land heads for all 6 tosses?

½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½ x ½

= 1/64

During gamete formation, genes for different traits separate without influencing the other.

Foil each parent

to get 4 gametes

G g Y y

GY

Gy

gY

gy

Be able to define:

Compete Dominance

Incomplete Dominance

Co-Dominance

Complete Dominance

The dominant trait (G) over shadows the recessive trait (g) and only the dominant trait shows up in the phenotype.

Incomplete Dominance

Neither trait is dominant over the other and a new trait is displayed. BLENDING!!!

Red flowers crossed with white flowers make pink flowers.

Co-Dominance

Both traits are equally displayed and neither is dominant over the other.

ABO blood types: A blood x B blood =

AB blood

What are polygenic traits?

Traits that have a wide variety of color ranges such as eye colors, hair color, skin color.

A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h

First determine how many different letters are there for each letter type then multiply!

A A B bC cD dE EF FG gH h

1 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 1 x 1 x 2 x 2 =

32 gametes

Can this parentAaBBccDdeeFfGgHH

have a child with the following genotype? Why or why not?

A A B b C c D d E E F F G g H h

Can this parent AaBBccDdeeFfGgHH

have a child with the following genotype? Why?

NO, because the parent would need to have a big E in their genotype in order for the child to have 2 EE’s.

A A B b C c D dE EF F G g H h

Know what forms from the sex cells in females and males!

Female

Male

4 Sperm are produced

1 Egg and 3 polar bodies are produced

Know the stages of Meiosis I & II

The chromatids pull apart during Meiosis I I

The paired, homologous chromosomes come together during Meiosis I to make

4 genetically different cells result at the end of Meiosis

Haploid =one set of chromosomes

During Prophase I

Important

for

GENETIC

DIVERSITY!!

What is this picture called?

What 4 things are shown from this picture?

What is this called? Karyotype

• Shows:
• Autosomes= all chromosomes # 1 - 22 chromosome pairs (not sex chromosomes)
• Sex Chromosomes
• (XX= female or XY= male) # 23 pair
• Homologous Chromosomes = chromosomes that code for the same traits and pair up with each other
• Inherited Disorders (ex: Down’s, Turner’s, Kleinfelter’s, Super males/females)

Non-disjunction–When chromosome pairs don’t separate properly during Meiosis I

Can involve all types of chromosomes (sex, autosomes, homologous)

Who determines the sex of the offspring?

Mother or Father

Why?

What is probability of getting a girl? A boy?

Father

determines sex of offspring

He provides either an X or a Y to pair up with the mother’s X to make a boy or girl

50% chance of Boy 50% chance of Girl

What is this picture called?

• What do each of the shapes and shading combinations represent?
• How many generations are shown?

Normal Male

Normal Female

Female with Trait

Carrier Female

Male with Trait

Carrier Male

Line = Marriage

Pedigree Chart = shows how a trait is passed from one generation to the next.

3 Generations

Be able to describe the differences between:

MeiosisandMitosis

Asexual andSexual Reproduction

Know the term Sex-linked genes/traits and how the key and Punnett square would look. What chromosome carries these types of traits?

XBXb x XbY

female carrier x male colorblind

?

?

Phenotypes:

1 Female/Carrier

1 Female/Colorblind

1 Male/Normal

1 Male/Colorblind

Know the term Sex-linked genes/traits and how the key and Punnett square would look. What chromosome carries these types of traits?

• Sex-linked gene/trait–Traits linked to sex chromosomes such as hemophilia or colorblindness

XBXb x XbY

female carrier x male colorblind

Phenotypes:

1 Female/Carrier

1 Female/Colorblind

1 Male/Normal

1 Male/Colorblind

• Sex-linked traits only carried on X
• Y doesn’t carry traits

Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms:

• Allele
• Gametes
• Genes
• Genetics
• Karyotype
• Pedigree
• Probability
• Punnett Square

Allele- Different forms of a gene

• Gametes- Sex Cells (egg & sperm)
• Gene- Part of a chromosome; codes for traits
• Genetics- Study of how traits are passed generation to generation
• Karyotype- Picture of all chromosomes matched up - looking for sex and the presence of abnormal # of chromosomes
• Pedigree- Family tree (picture) shows passing of trait from one generation to the next generation
• Probability - Chance of something happening
• Punnett Square- Chart showing offspring’s trait probabilities

Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms:

• Dominant
• Recessive
• Genotype
• Phenotype
• Heterozygous
• Homozygous
• Trait
• Homologous
• Recessive – Gene whose effect is masked by partner (dominant) trait
• Genotype – Genetic makeup of organism (letters)
• Phenotype – Trait expressed “physical” looks
• Heterozygous – Pair of different alleles (Rr)
• Homozygous – Pair of same kind of alleles (RR) (rr)
• Trait – Inherited characteristic (feature)
• Homologous – Pair of same kind of chromosomes

Know the definitions of the following vocabulary terms:

• Co-dominance
• Incomplete dominance
• Diploid
• Haploid
• Independent Assortment
• Non-disjunction
• Segregation

Co-dominance – Both alleles expressed EQUALLY

• Incomplete dominance – Blending of traits
• Diploid – Having 2 sets of chromosomes
• Haploid – Having 1 set of chromosomes
• Independent Assortment – Genes that separate have no effect on the other’s inheritance
• Non-disjunction – When chromosomes don’t separate
• Segregation – Separation of alleles

Know how to do the following types of crosses:

• Monohybrid Cross
• Dihybrid Cross
• Incomplete Dominance Cross