E19 2174 cognitive science and educational technology i visual learning
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E19.2174 Cognitive Science and Educational Technology I Visual Learning. Jan L. Plass New York Univerisity. Center for Research and Evaluation of Advanced Technologies in Education. Overview. Visual Learning.

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E19 2174 cognitive science and educational technology i visual learning

E19.2174 Cognitive Science and Educational Technology IVisual Learning

Jan L. Plass

New York Univerisity

Center for Research and Evaluation of Advanced Technologies in Education


Overview

Overview

Visual Learning

  • You are asked to design a visualization for educational purposes, for example, to learn about

  • The ideal gas laws

  • The carbon cycle

  • Bird migration patterns

  • The system of voting districts in the U.S.

  • Air traffic control

  • The history of the Gulf War


Overview1

Overview

Visual Learning

Cognitive Variables

Cognitive Design

Visual Environment

Visual Load

Visual Learning

Emotional Design

Attitudes, Motivation


Visual learning

Visual Learning

Visual Learning

  • Learning from primarily visual materials

  • Text only as labels or brief statements

  • Examples:

    • Graphs, charts, maps, networks, pictures, video, animation


Visual learning1

Visual Learning

How do Visual and Verbal Information differ from one another?


Visual learning2

Visual Learning

Visual v. Verbal Information

  • Visual information:

    • analogous representations

    • inherently relational

    • encoded simultaneously

  • Verbal information:

    • discreet units of symbolic information

    • propositional

    • processed sequentially


Visual learning3

Visual Learning

Dual Coding Theory(Paivio, 1986, 1990)


Visual cognitive load

Germane

Load

Intrinsic

Load

Extraneous

Load

Free

Working Memory

Visual Cognitive Load

Cognitive Load Components (Sweller, 1999)

  • Intrinsic LoadLoad related to complexity of the informationElement interactivity

  • Extraneous LoadLoad pertaining to format and design of the interface (presentation mode, modality, temporal & spatial arrangement, representation type)

  • Germane LoadMental effort expended by learner


Visual cognitive load1

Visual Cognitive Load

Visual Cognitive Load

  • Cognitive Load for Visual Representations:

    • Intrinsic Visual LoadVisual element interactivity

    • Extraneous Visual LoadVisual format and design of the interface (presentation mode, modality, temporal & spatial arrangement, representation type)

      Lee, Plass, & Homer (2006)


Visual learning environments

Visual Learning Environments

Visual Learning Environments

  • Highly visual learning environments

  • Examples

    • Simulations, virtual worlds, microworlds, games


Introduction

Introduction

Examples

Ideal Gas Law (Oklahoma State University)


Introduction1

Introduction

Examples

Odyssey Simulation Package


Introduction2

Introduction

Examples

Gizmo/ ExploreLearning


Introduction3

Introduction

Examples

Molecular Workbench


Introduction4

Introduction

Examples

Schnotz & Rasch (2005)


Introduction5

Introduction

Examples

Ideal Gas Laws(NYU Molecules & Minds project, IES)


Introduction6

Introduction

Examples

Virtual Patient

(Abdominal

Exam)

NYU School

of Medicine


Overview2

Overview

Visual Learning

Cognitive Variables

Cognitive Design

Visual Environment

Visual Load

Visual Learning

Emotional Design

Attitudes, Motivation


Visual learning4

Visual Learning

Group Discussion (3-4 students, 15min)

Discuss Design Principles that increase the effectiveness of visual representations for learning (Animations and Simulations)?

–List and Discuss principles from the assigned reading

–Find and discuss examples


Cognitive design factors

Cognitive Design Factors

Cognitive Design Factors

  • Representation of information (Information Design)

  • Instructional Approach (Interaction Design)

  • Interactivity (Interaction Design)

  • Function of Visuals (in support of cognitive processes)

  • Scaffolds

  • Feedback

  • Narrative structure


Cognitive design factors1

Cognitive Design Factors

Representation of Information (Semiotics)

Which mode of relationship between signs and their referents best facilitates learning?

  • Icon: Most basic representation, relies on physical resemblance to convey meaning

  • Symbol: Abstract, arbitrary, relies on social conventions for meaning (Peirce, 1956)

    Question of Interest:

  • Comparison of Iconic v. Symbolic representations


Research materials

Research Materials

Chemistry Simulations

  • Ideal Gas Law


Research materials1

Research Materials

Chemistry Simulations

  • Ideal Gas Law


Results representation

Results: Representation

Representation of Information (Semiotics)

Does adding icons facilitate learning in chemistry simulations?

  • Study with 93 11th grade students in a NYC high school:

  • Adding icons increased recall

  • Icons especially helped learners with low prior knowledge

    (Lee, Plass, & Homer, 2006; Plass et al., 2007)


Visual design of simulations

Visual Design of Simulations

Instructional Approach: Level of Learner Control

Which instructional approach best facilitates learning?

Consider:

  • Difficulty of content: Intrinsic Cognitive Load

  • Complexity of interactions: Extraneous Load

  • Educational goals / Cognitive Function of materials

  • Learner characteristics

    Option

  • Direct instruction v. guided exploration


Visual design of simulations1

Visual Design of Simulations

Instructional Approach: Level of Learner Control

Which instructional approach best facilitates learning?

  • Comparison of direct instruction v. guided exploration

    In other words:

  • Comparison of Worked-out example (Animation) v. Exploration (Simulation)

    Or, in even different terms:

  • Kirschner, Sweller, & Clark (2006) v. Everybody Else

    Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching


Research materials2

Research Materials

Chemistry Simulations

  • Kinetic Theoryof Heat


Research materials3

Research Materials

Worked-out

Example

  • Ideal Gas Law


Results instructional format

Results: Instructional Format

Results: Simulation (exploratory) vs. Animation (worked-out)

Does ability to manipulate parameters facilitate learning?

  • Study with 93 11th grade students in a NYC high school:

  • For comprehension:SimulationDirect Exploration >Instruction

    (Plass et al., 2007)


Cognitive design factors2

Cognitive Design Factors

Example

Level of Interactivity


Cognitive design factors3

Cognitive Design Factors

Example

Level of Interactivity


Visual design of simulations2

Visual Design of Simulations

Cognitive Function of Visual Information

What purpose does the visual information serve in the construction of mental models?(Plass, 1998)

  • Levin, Anglin, & Carney (1987): 5 functions (heuristic)

    • Decorativemotivational function; little relation to content

    • Representativedepicts content of the instruction

    • Organizingdepicts knowledge structures

    • Interpretingvisualizes abstract concepts

    • Transforming supports higher-level cognitive processes


Visual design of simulations3

Words

Ears

Sounds

Prior Knowledge

Verbal Model

(Verbal Mental Representation)

Organize Words

SelectWords

Integrate

Select

Images

Organize Images

Pictures

Eyes

Images

Pictorial Model (Visual Mental Representation)

Long-Term Memory

Working Memory

Multimedia Presentation

Sensory Memory

Visual Design of Simulations

Cognitive Theory of Multimedia Learning (Mayer, 2001)


Visual design of simulations4

Visual Design of Simulations

Cognitive Function of Visual Information

What purpose does the visual information serve in the construction of mental models?(Plass, 1998)

  • Our approach: Define function based on Mayer’s CTML

    • Selecting

    • Organizing

    • Integrating

  • Different types of visuals support different learning outcomes (recall, comprehension, transfer)(Plass, Hamilton, & Wallen, 2004; Wallen, Plass, & Brünken, 2005)


Visual design of simulations5

Visual Design of Simulations

Function of Multimedia Aids in Text Comprehension


Visual design of simulations6

Visual Design of Simulations

Established Cognitive Design Principles

  • Split Attention PrincipleAvoid requiring learners to split their attention between, and mentally integrate, several sources of physically or temporally disparate information, where each source of information is essential for understanding the material.’’ (Ayres & Sweller, 2005)

  • Modality PrinciplePresent animation with narration rather than with on-screen text (Mayer, 2001)

  • Contiguity PrinciplePresent related information near to each other in time and space (Mayer, 2001)


Visual design of simulations7

Visual Design of Simulations

Emerging Visual Design Principles

  • Cueing Adding design elements that direct learners’ attention to the important part of a simulation reduces cognitive load and enhances learning(Dwyer, 1978, Jeung et al., 1997; Tabbers et al., 2004; de Koenig el al., 2007)

  • Representation of InformationAdding iconic representations can enhance learning, especially for learners with low prior knowledge (Lee et al., 2006; Plass et al., 2009)

  • Color CodingUse color to highlight important features and attributes of the visual display (Dwyer and Moore, 1991; Keller et al., 2006)

  • Multiple Dynamic Visual RepresentationsMultiple dynamic representations should be integrated and linked (van der Meij & de Jong, 2006)


Visual design of simulations8

Visual Design of Simulations

Established Interaction Design Principles

  • Learner Control of SegmentingLearner control over the advancement from one segment of visual materials to the next improves learning(Mayer & Chandler, 2001; Mayer et al., 2003; Moreno, 2007)

  • Guided Discovery Principle Provide guidance in discovery-based learning environments(de Jong, 2006; de Jong & van Joolingen, 1998; Kirschner et al., 2006; Mayer, 2004)


Visual design of simulations9

Visual Design of Simulations

Established Interaction Design Principles

  • Learner Control of Pacing Learner control over the pace of the presentation of visual materials improves learning(Hasler et al., 2007; Schwan & Riempp, 2004; Tabbers et al., 2004)

  • Task-Appropriate Representations –Simulations need to prepare learners for future tasks to be performed–Facilitating, Enabling, or Inhibiting Effects –Cognitive Function of Simulations (Retention, Understanding, Transfer) (Carney & Levin, 2002; Levin et al., 1987; Plass, Wallen, & Hamilton, 2004)

  • Content-Manipulating Interactivity Learner control over the content of visual materials improves learning(Chandler, 2004; Hegarty, 2004; Rieber, 1990, Wouters et al., 2007)


Emotional design factors

Emotional Design Factors

Emotional Design Factors

  • Visual Design (Information Design)

  • Control (Interaction Design)

  • Feedback

  • Intrinsic motivation v. Extrinsic motivation

  • Social interaction

  • Social Presence/Telepresence


Overview3

Overview

Visual Learning

Cognitive Variables

Cognitive Design

Visual Environment

Visual Load

Visual Learning

Emotional Design

Attitudes, Motivation


Visual design of simulations10

Visual Design of Simulations

Other Emotional Design Principles

  • Personalization PrincipleLearning more deeply when words in a multimedia presentation are in conversational rather than formal style(Mayer, 2005)

  • Social Presence HypothesisLearning is facilitated by giving learners a sense of the presence of others in a learning environment This effect is expected to be especially strong in self-learning


Visual learning5

Visual Learning

Group Activity (3-4 students, 30min)

Apply the Design Principles we discussed to your own projects by designing a simulation or animation.

–Select which topic to cover

-Discuss which principles apply

–Describe how you will apply the principles for the information design and interaction design of the simulation


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