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Police Technology Chapter Eleven. Information Exchange. Learning Objectives. The value of information exchange between state, local, and federal agencies The issue of Interoperability The various factors that make information exchange difficult

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Police Technology Chapter Eleven

Information Exchange

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Learning Objectives

  • The value of information exchange between state, local, and federal agencies

  • The issue of Interoperability

  • The various factors that make information exchange difficult

  • Some of the potential solutions to information exchange

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Introduction

We will look at information exchange in two

primary ways:

  • The exchange of tactical information

  • The exchange of strategic information

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Integration - Defined

A completely integrated criminal justice system would be a network designed to provide each agency from the police to the courts, to the prison system, with the information it needs to make a decision.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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The Importance of Integration

Interoperability is the process of connecting different agencies or units with agencies using communication technologies so that they can communicate directly.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Tactical Importance of Integration

Tactical information is used to make immediate decisions. Incorrect or incomplete information can cause poor decisions

The inability to share critical information is dangerous.

Screen Capture provided by FAAC Inc

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Strategic Importance of Integration

Strategic information is generally used to make long-term or more deliberated decisions. Incorrect or incomplete information can cause poor decisions

The inability to share critical information is dangerous.

Photograph provided by Robert Eplett, California Governor’s Office of Emergency Services

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Fragmentation has created

organizational islands.

Organizations are influenced by:

Sub-culture

Budgets

Community Priorities

Why Can’t Agencies Exchange Information?

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster

Copyright Protected: 2005 Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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More on Fragmentation

The entire criminal justice system tends to perform the function of information management exchange poorly because each island enters information into the system separately, differently, and repeatedly.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Fragmentation Results

As state and local agencies adapt new ideas and technologies, they tend to adapt them to their own ways of doing business.

These agencies end up with an assortment of systems, applications, databases, and communications schemes – often different from neighboring or even overlapping agencies

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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What Should Integration Look Like?

An integrated criminal justice information

sharing system must:

  • Fulfill the needs of the agency employing the system and

  • Address the needs of other agencies.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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What Should Integration Look Like?

For any system integration

to be successful, it must be

founded on standards in:

  • Data entry

  • Protocols

  • Policies

  • Software

  • Hardware systems

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Integration

For these transactions to be complete,

they need to employ several different

concepts:

  • Context – an agreement between the agencies that the exchange is going to be about a certain subject

  • Protocol – Rules for how information is going to be exchanged and used

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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A fully integrated system . . .

  • Information would be captured once and reused during subsequent decision-making points

  • Would have the ability to automatically query databases of other organizations

  • Would have the ability to push and pull only data that was needed

  • Have the ability to receive notifications

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Are Internet Standards a Solution?

Why aren’t law enforcement agencies

using Web-based standards?

  • Agencies only need certain portions of each other’s data

    • Except, databases are often incompatible (data fields, values, and attributes are nonstandard)

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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The XML Solution

  • Extensible Mark-up Language is a root markup language that is derived from and similar to HTML

  • Intended primarily for the transmission of text information

  • Can be used to pass other binary data such as images

  • Uses tags to identify information so disparate applications and systems can easily recognize the data

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Style is the way in which an agency decides it wants its data presented

Content is the part of the total that each picks for its own style

XML separates style from content

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Tactical Communications

There are two common technological strategies and one operational strategy that can improve communications between different agencies.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Technological Solutions

  • Trunked Radio Systems - allow for the programming of other agency frequencies into the radio system carries in the vehicle

  • Gateway Interface – permanently installed or used during major tactical incidents

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Organizational Solution

  • Incident Command System (ICS) – Provides common terminology and organization structures for successful joint field operations

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Agency Partnerships

There are ways that agency partnerships

can improve interoperability and the

exchange of data information.

  • Direct pooling of physical resources

  • Pool data, not facilities

  • Contract communications with a larger agency

  • Create regional systems

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Two ways of looking at information-

integration partnerships

  • Horizontal Partnership– between agencies at the same level of government

  • Vertical Partnership – Involves agencies at varying levels of government. More complex

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Economies of Scale

  • Based on economic theory that the more you produce of a good, the less that it costs for each additional unit.

  • In government services, economy of scale can be realized by expanding the geographic boundaries of service

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Economies of ScaleCombining Technology Resources

Eighty-five percent of most state and local law enforcement budgets are personnel costs, not equipment costs.

How many fewer people will it take to run an operation? Will there be significant savings over the long term?

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Economies of ScaleCombining Technology Resources

  • Information Sharing is the transfer of information from one system to another via an intermediate system.

  • Instead of pooling facilities, agencies agree to send their data to a central data warehouse

  • This does not address voice communications.

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Economies of ScaleCombining Technology Resources

Contract information services with a private vendor or with a larger agency.

Typically used by small municipal police department that contracts with a country law enforcement agency

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Economies of ScaleCombining Technology Resources

For a predetermined

fee, the larger

agency:

  • Conducts the PSAP

  • Computer-aided dispatch

  • Radio systems maintenance

  • Controls access to databases

Photograph provided by Randall Larson, Editor, 9-1-1 Magazine

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Regional System

  • Agencies form joint communications projects.

  • Sometimes referred to as Intergovernmental Agreements (IGA) or Joint Powers Authorities (JPA)

  • Some agencies form not-for-profit organizations to create and manage a regional system

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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Police Technology

Explore leadership at

www.pokerleadership.com

Copyright 2005 - 2009: Hi Tech Criminal Justice, Raymond E. Foster


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