Chapter eleven
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Chapter Eleven . Toward a Tobacco-Free Society. Tobacco Use in American Society. Over the past 4 decades, the proportion of cigarette smoking among adults in the United States has dropped 30% Almost every state now restricts smoking in public places

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Chapter Eleven

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Chapter eleven

Chapter Eleven

Toward a Tobacco-Free Society


Tobacco use in american society

Tobacco Use in American Society

  • Over the past 4 decades, the proportion of cigarette smoking among adults in the United States has dropped 30%

  • Almost every state now restricts smoking in public places

  • The U. S. Surgeon General has proposed that America become completely smoke-free


Why people use tobacco

Why People Use Tobacco

  • Nicotine Addiction

    • Modulator of everyday emotions

  • Loss of Control

    • 3 of 4 smokers find they cannot quit, which is more difficult for smokeless users

  • Build up of Tolerance

    • Same effects build up over time, needing more cigarette to maintain the same original effects, which create dependence

  • Social and Psychological Factors

    • Habits are formed via ‘secondary reinforcers’ which keep the user dependent upon tobacco

  • Genetic Factors

    • CYP2A6 enzyme can create more activity for tobacco use


  • Who uses tobacco

    A parent or sibling uses tobacco

    Peers use tobacco

    The child comes from a blue collar family

    The family is headed by a single parent

    The child comes from a low income home

    The child performs poorly in school

    The child drops out of school

    The child has positive attitudes about tobacco use

    Who Uses Tobacco?

    Research shows that children are vulnerable to smoking based upon the following


    Other demographic factors influencing tobacco use

    Other Demographic Factors Influencing Tobacco Use

    • Gender

    • Age groups

    • Region of the country

    • Education level

    • Ethnicity


    The source of physiologically active compounds

    The Source of Physiologically Active Compounds

    • Particulate phase (small particle compounds)

      • nicotine

      • water

      • tar (phenol, cresol, benzo pyrene, DDT)

    Many of these chemicals are considered carcinogens


    Sources of physiologically active compounds cont d

    Sources of Physiologically Active Compounds, cont’d

    • Gaseous phase (gas compounds)

      • carbon monoxide (CO)

      • carbon dioxide, ammonia, hydrogen cyanide, isopyrene, acetone, etc.

    Many of these chemicals are considered carcinogens


    Acute effects of smoking

    Acute Effects of Smoking

    • The effects of nicotine is dependent upon the smoker’s tolerance and previous consumption level

    • Once the cerebral cortex has been stimulated, arousal of nicotine allows norepinephrine, dopamine, acetylcholine, serotonin release

    • CNS is depressed within the brain which stimulates areas within the heart, lungs, blood flow


    Relationship between cigarette smoking and the following conditions

    Relationship Between Cigarette Smoking and the Following Conditions

    • Cardiovascular Disease and Carbon Monoxide

      • Impairment of oxygen transport

    • Cardiovascular Disease and Nicotine

      • Myocardial infarction risk

      • Sudden cardiac death risk

      • Development of Angina Pectoralis

      • Increase of Platelet Adhesiveness


    Relationship between cigarette smoking and the following conditions cont

    Relationship Between Cigarette Smoking and the Following Conditions, cont.

    • Cancers

      • Lung

      • Mouth

      • Throat

        * Evidence suggests that after one year without smoking, the risk of lung cancer decreases substantially


    What are cold s

    What are COLD’s?

    • Chronic Bronchitis (inflammation/infection of air passageways)

    • Pulmonary Emphysema (destruction of the alveoli)

    • Cilia destruction (hair-like projections which assist mucus movement)

    Chronic Obstructive Lung Disorders


    Selected health concerns from cigarette smoking

    Lung disease

    Cancer risk

    Heart disease

    Peripheral Vascular disease

    Skin changes

    Orthopedic problems

    Rheumatologic problems

    Male Infertility

    Depression

    Neurological disorders

    Endocrine system problems

    GI tract diseases

    Immune system

    Oral Health

    Complications in OB/GYN

    Selected Health Concerns from Cigarette Smoking


    Other forms of tobacco products

    Other Forms of Tobacco Products

    • Smokeless Tobacco

    • Cigars and Pipes

    • Clove Cigarettes and Bidis


    Second hand smoke

    Second-hand Smoke

    • Mainstream (smoke exhaled by smoker)

    • Sidestream (smoke from the burning product)

    • Environmental smoke (diluted smoke in the air)

    85% of the smoke in a room comes from sidestream smoke


    Ets effects

    ETS Effects

    • Up to 70% of nonsmokers subjected to Environmental Smoke develop some form of irritation or health ailment

    • It also causes 3000 lung cancer deaths annually

    • 60,000 deaths from heart disease is associated with ETS

    • Infants are 23 times more likely to die from SIDS when exposed to ETS

    • Children and infants becomes vulnerable to respiratory disorders and reduced lung function


    Smoking and pregnancy

    Smoking and Pregnancy

    • Infertility

    • Problem pregnancies

    • Low birth weight

    • Premature labor/delivery

    • Miscarriage risk doubles


    Benefits of quitting

    Benefits of Quitting

    • Taste returns back to normal

    • The concept of “smell” improves

    • Breathing becomes easier

    • Decrease risk of heart and lung disease

    • More energy and alertness


    Options for quitting

    Options for Quitting

    • Strategies involving the benefits of behavioral and pharmacological interventions such as:

      • “Cold Turkey” method

      • Non-tobacco sources of nicotine products e.g. suckers, gums, straws, sprays, drops, etc.

      • Smoking cessation programs

      • Support groups

      • Regular exercise program


    Chapter eleven1

    Chapter Eleven

    Toward a Tobacco-Free Society


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