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WATER SUPPLY. Murray Biedler July 09, 2012 . WATER NEEDS. Drinking Food Prep Hygiene / Washing Agric / Stock. CHARACTERISTICS of WATER SUPPLY. Quantity Quality Access and Sources Treatment Not static … constantly changing. WATER QUANTITY. Europe 150-litres/p/ day average

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WATER SUPPLY

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WATER SUPPLY

Murray Biedler

July 09, 2012


WATER NEEDS

Drinking

Food Prep

Hygiene / Washing

Agric / Stock


CHARACTERISTICSofWATER SUPPLY

  • Quantity

  • Quality

  • Access and Sources

  • Treatment

    Not static… constantlychanging


WATER QUANTITY

  • Europe 150-litres/p/dayaverage

  • Emergencies

    • 20-litres/p/day minimum

    • 5-litres/p/day: opening of emergency

    • Health centre: 1-2 litres/consultation

    • Hospital: 40-60 litres/patient/day (100 for surgery)

    • Therapeuticfeeding centre: 30 litres / child / day

    • Cattle: 30 l/animal/day

    • Small animals: 5 l/animal/day


WATER QUALITY

  • Bacteriologicalqualitylinked to:

    • Faecal contamination indicative of pathogens (e.g. cholera or typhoid)

      (rapidassessment in field)

  • Chemicalqualitylinked to:

    • Geologicalsurroundings, agricultural or otherindustrial/commercial activities

      (rapidassessment difficult labrequired)


WATER QUALITY

GoodQuality:

  • Containsnopathogens

  • Low concentration of toxicproducts

  • Clear (low turbidity)

  • Is nottoosaltyormineralized

  • Colour, odour and taste acceptable


WATER ACCESS:CHALLENGES

Time

Cost

Distance & Security


WATER ACESS: SOURCES

  • Surface water

    • rivers, lakes, ponds (accessseasonal)

  • Ground water

    • Difficultaccess but canbebetterquality

  • Precipitation

    • Seasonal: rain, snow, fog capture


WATER ACCESS: SURFACE

On site pumps to storage / tower

Gravity network, pipes & taps


WATER ACCESS: GROUNDWATER

  • Hand-dugwells:

    hand pumps, buckets

  • Boreholes (shallow & deep)

    pumps: hand, motor, solar, wind…


WATER ACCESS: SPRINGS

Springs: on site pumps or gravity into networks, pipes & taps


WATER ACCESS: PRECIPITATION

Rainwater collection gravity to tanks networks, pipes & taps


WATER ACCESS: STORAGE

  • Storage providesavailability on regular basis

  • Storage tanks provide:

    • Treatment of large volumes

    • Pressure withgravity

  • Dams: surface and subsurface; seasonal & precipitationconstraints


WATER ACCESS DISTRIBUTION

  • 1 tap/200 persons for displaced populations

  • Healthfacilities: taps for staff, patients & visitors

  • Container distribution


WATER TREATMENT

  • Chlorinationsimplest & most efficient way to killmicro-organisms

  • Residualchlorinenecessary to attackfurther contaminations

  • Chlorinationbecomes inefficient if the water istoodirty or turbid


SEDIMENTATION & FILTRATION

  • Water storeduntilsuspendedparticlessettle

  • Water canbefilteredwithsand or otherdesignedmaterials

  • Coagulation-flocculation for heavyturbidityusingchemicals (e.g.ferricchloride or aluminium sulphate)


DOMESTIC STORAGE

Container

lid or top (e.g: jerrycan) or a narrowopening

(transport)

kept clean regularlydosed for residualchlorine

(storage)


ADAPTED WATER SUPPLY

MAIN ISSUES TO BE CONSIDERED

NEEDS ANALYSIS

TECHNICAL OPTIONS

SANITATION AND HYGIENE

ENSURING QUALITY

POTENTIAL SOURCES

AVAILABLE QUANTITY


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