Water supply
Download
1 / 18

WATER SUPPLY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 144 Views
  • Uploaded on

WATER SUPPLY. Murray Biedler July 09, 2012 . WATER NEEDS. Drinking Food Prep Hygiene / Washing Agric / Stock. CHARACTERISTICS of WATER SUPPLY. Quantity Quality Access and Sources Treatment Not static … constantly changing. WATER QUANTITY. Europe 150-litres/p/ day average

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' WATER SUPPLY' - zlata


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Water supply
WATER SUPPLY

Murray Biedler

July 09, 2012


Water needs
WATER NEEDS

Drinking

Food Prep

Hygiene / Washing

Agric / Stock


Characteristics of water supply
CHARACTERISTICSofWATER SUPPLY

  • Quantity

  • Quality

  • Access and Sources

  • Treatment

    Not static… constantlychanging


Water quantity
WATER QUANTITY

  • Europe 150-litres/p/dayaverage

  • Emergencies

    • 20-litres/p/day minimum

    • 5-litres/p/day: opening of emergency

    • Health centre: 1-2 litres/consultation

    • Hospital: 40-60 litres/patient/day (100 for surgery)

    • Therapeuticfeeding centre: 30 litres / child / day

    • Cattle: 30 l/animal/day

    • Small animals: 5 l/animal/day


Water quality
WATER QUALITY

  • Bacteriologicalqualitylinked to:

    • Faecal contamination indicative of pathogens (e.g. cholera or typhoid)

      (rapidassessment in field)

  • Chemicalqualitylinked to:

    • Geologicalsurroundings, agricultural or otherindustrial/commercial activities

      (rapidassessment difficult labrequired)


Water quality1
WATER QUALITY

GoodQuality:

  • Containsnopathogens

  • Low concentration of toxicproducts

  • Clear (low turbidity)

  • Is nottoosaltyormineralized

  • Colour, odour and taste acceptable


Water access challenges
WATER ACCESS:CHALLENGES

Time

Cost

Distance & Security


Water acess sources
WATER ACESS: SOURCES

  • Surface water

    • rivers, lakes, ponds (accessseasonal)

  • Ground water

    • Difficultaccess but canbebetterquality

  • Precipitation

    • Seasonal: rain, snow, fog capture


Water access surface
WATER ACCESS: SURFACE

On site pumps to storage / tower

Gravity network, pipes & taps


Water access groundwater
WATER ACCESS: GROUNDWATER

  • Hand-dugwells:

    hand pumps, buckets

  • Boreholes (shallow & deep)

    pumps: hand, motor, solar, wind…


Water access springs
WATER ACCESS: SPRINGS

Springs: on site pumps or gravity into networks, pipes & taps


Water access precipitation
WATER ACCESS: PRECIPITATION

Rainwater collection gravity to tanks networks, pipes & taps


Water access storage
WATER ACCESS: STORAGE

  • Storage providesavailability on regular basis

  • Storage tanks provide:

    • Treatment of large volumes

    • Pressure withgravity

  • Dams: surface and subsurface; seasonal & precipitationconstraints


Water access distribution
WATER ACCESS DISTRIBUTION

  • 1 tap/200 persons for displaced populations

  • Healthfacilities: taps for staff, patients & visitors

  • Container distribution


Water treatment
WATER TREATMENT

  • Chlorinationsimplest & most efficient way to killmicro-organisms

  • Residualchlorinenecessary to attackfurther contaminations

  • Chlorinationbecomes inefficient if the water istoodirty or turbid


Sedimentation filtration
SEDIMENTATION & FILTRATION

  • Water storeduntilsuspendedparticlessettle

  • Water canbefilteredwithsand or otherdesignedmaterials

  • Coagulation-flocculation for heavyturbidityusingchemicals (e.g.ferricchloride or aluminium sulphate)


Domestic storage
DOMESTIC STORAGE

Container

lid or top (e.g: jerrycan) or a narrowopening

(transport)

kept clean regularlydosed for residualchlorine

(storage)


Main issues to be considered

ADAPTED WATER SUPPLY

MAIN ISSUES TO BE CONSIDERED

NEEDS ANALYSIS

TECHNICAL OPTIONS

SANITATION AND HYGIENE

ENSURING QUALITY

POTENTIAL SOURCES

AVAILABLE QUANTITY


ad