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Part 1 I ntroduction to the Course. R=ih 2 σ P. The relevance of genetics and selection for aquaculture and fisheries; Present status of the Industry Assessment of knowledge. A BRIEF HISTORY OF GENETICS AND SELECTION OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS.

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Part 1 i ntroduction to the course

Part 1Introduction to the Course

R=ih2σP

The relevance of genetics and selection for aquaculture and fisheries;

Present status of the Industry

Assessment of knowledge

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


A brief history of genetics and selection of aquatic organisms

A BRIEF HISTORY OF GENETICS AND SELECTION OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS

  • Over 2000 years ago the Chinese and the Romans had started growing fish, mainly carp, and selecting the best varieties;

  • In the 1800s the Japanese developed dozens of varieties of Koi Carp through artificial selection;

  • In the 1960s started the first genetic enhancement programs in aquatic organisms;

  • Since the 1980s molecular tools and biotechnology have been applied to support traditional selection methods and developing new ones;

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


The chinese and the carp

The Chinese and the Carp

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


Japan in the 1800s koi carp varieties

Japan in the 1800s… Koi Carp Varieties

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


Relevance of genetics and selection to the aquaculture industry

Relevance of Genetics and Selection to the Aquaculture Industry

  • At present 10%-20% of fish and shellfish produced in aquaculture derive from domesticated/selected stocks;

  • Practically all other food sources for human consumption (meat, poultry, vegetables) are the product of decades of selection and genetic improvement;

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


Results of selection programs in land animal species

Results of Selection Programs in Land Animal Species

  • Since the 1940’s, the average number of eggs laid per year by a hen has increased from 120 to more than 320;

  • The average milk production per cow in single lactation of 305 days increased from 2,000 kgs to over 5,000 kgs;

  • The average daily gain in the pig industry has increased from 450 grams to over 800 grams (in the last 30 years).

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


Results of selection programs in fish species

Results of Selection Programs in Fish Species

  • For salmon, phenotypic and genetic selection has reduced time to achieve market weight by over 30% with a parallel decrease of maintenance requirements (feed, labor, fuel, etc.) by over 25%.

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


The production advantages of selected fish and shellfish stocks

The Production Advantages of Selected Fish and Shellfish Stocks

?

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


The production advantages of selected fish and shellfish stocks1

The Production Advantages of Selected Fish and Shellfish Stocks

  • Through selection fish and shellfish will be:

    • Cheaper to produce;

    • Each Kg produced will require less feed – Savings on resources;

    • The environmental impact of producing fish will be reduced (per Kg of fish produced);

    • Aquaculture will become a viable industry;

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


The problem

The Problem…

BASS & BREAM IN EUROPE

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


What do fish farmers want from genetics and selection of livestock

What do Fish farmers Want from Genetics and Selection of Livestock?

?

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


What do fish farmers want from genetics and selection of livestock1

What do Fish farmers Want from Genetics and Selection of Livestock?

  • CIHEAM study – 1998 - Most important characters to select:

    • Growth rate / FCR;

    • Disease resistance;

    • Body conformation;

    • Stress resistance;

    • Age at maturity;

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


Current status of the application of selection and genetics to the industry 1 what can be done

Current Status of the Application of Selection and Genetics to the Industry:1 - What can be done

  • A number of target characters (e.g. growth rate) have been shown to have great potential for genetic improvement – shown in the laboratory or in pilot selection experiments;

  • Most aquaculture species have high fecundity which allows for very high short-term genetic gains through intense and accurate selection;

  • For most of the important species there are available genetic markers (mtDNA, microsatellite) and for many genetic maps and QTL-maps are becoming available

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


Current status of the application of selection and genetics to the industry 2 what are we doing

Current Status of the Application of Selection and Genetics to the Industry:2 – What are we doing?

  • There are at present (Gjerde and Villanueva, 2003) 27 selection programs operation in the world, involving 9 species;

  • Most use traditional designs and technologies, with some exceptions such as the use of electronic PIT tags and to a small extent PCR amplification of microsatellites for pedigree analysis;

  • Most farmers still rely of wild genetic stocks

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


Current status of the application of selection and genetics to the industry 3 why

Current Status of the Application of Selection and Genetics to the Industry:3 – Why?

?

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


Current status of the application of selection and genetics to the industry 3 why1

Current Status of the Application of Selection and Genetics to the Industry:3 – Why?

  • Lack of knowledge;

  • Lack of patience;

  • Lack of money;

  • Lack of infrastructure;

  • Lack of organization

    • National aquaculture associations;

    • Companies;

    • Universities – industry associations;

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


Our knowledge pool

Our Knowledge Pool…

  • Populations and individuals;

  • Cells, Nuclei, Chromosomes, polyploidy, haploid;

  • mtDNA, genes, minisatellites, microsatellites, QTLs, QTL maps, RFLP, Enzyme electrophoresis, AFLPs, DNA sequences;

  • Family selection, within family selection, mass selection;

  • Gene Pool, selection pressure, selection response;

  • Heritabilty (h2), VA, VE, VP

  • Mean, Variance

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


Home work

Home Work…

  • www site check: http://www.4cshellfish.com/index.html

  • Paper reviews:

    • Boudry et al.1998. Genetic improvement and selection in shellfish: A review based on oyster research and production. InBartley, D.M. (ed.), Basurco B. (ed.) Genetics and breeding of Mediterranean aquaculture species Zaragoza : CIHEAM-IAMZ, 1998. 296 p. (Cahiers Options Méditerranéennes ; v. 34). Seminar of the CIHEAM Network on Technology of Aquaculture in the Mediterranean (TECAM), 1997/04/28-29, Zaragoza (Spain)

    • Felip, A, et al., 2001. Comparative growth performance of diploid and triploid European sea bass over the first four spawning seasons. J Fish Biol, 58:76-88

    • Felip et al., 2002. Growth, gonadal development and sex ratios of meiogynogenetic diploid sea bass. J Fish Biol, 61:347-359

MASTERS IN AQUACULTURE AND FISHERIES

Genetics and Selection


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