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Training Evaluation. Training evaluation provides the data needed to demonstrate that training does provide benefits to the company. What are the differences among:. Training effectiveness Training outcomes Training evaluation Evaluation design. Types of Evaluation. Formative Summative.

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Training Evaluation

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TrainingEvaluation


Training evaluationprovides the data needed to demonstrate that training does provide benefits to the company.


What are the differences among:

  • Training effectiveness

  • Training outcomes

  • Training evaluation

  • Evaluation design


Types of Evaluation

  • Formative

  • Summative


Why Evaluate Training Programs?

  • Objectives

  • Satisfaction

  • Benefits

  • Comparison


Objectives = Foundation

  • Terminal behavior

  • Conditions under which terminal behavior is expected

  • The standard below which performance is unacceptable

  • --> criteria by which the trainee is judged


  • The Evaluation Process

    Conduct a Needs Analysis

    Develop Measurable Learning Outcomes and Analyze Transfer of Training

    Develop Outcome Measures

    Choose an Evaluation Strategy

    Plan and Execute the Evaluation


    Level

    Criteria

    Focus

    1

    Reactions

    Trainee satisfaction; aka affective

    2

    Learning

    Acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes, behavior; aka cognitive

    3

    Behavior

    Improvement of behavior on the job; akaskills

    4

    Results

    Business results achieved by trainees

    Training Outcomes: Kirkpatrick’s Four-Level Framework of Evaluation Criteria


    How do you know if your outcomes are good?

    Good training outcomes need to be:

    • Relevant

    • Reliable

    • Discriminative

    • Practical


    Good Outcomes: Relevance

    • Criteria relevance – the extent to which training programs are related to learned capabilities emphasized in the training program

    • Criterion contamination – extent that training outcomes measure inappropriate capabilities or are affected by extraneous conditions

    • Criterion deficiency – failure to measure training outcomes that were emphasized in the training objectives


    Criterion deficiency, relevance, and contamination:

    Outcomes Identified by Needs Assessment and Included in Training Objectives

    Outcomes Related to Training Objectives

    Outcomes Measured in Evaluation

    Contamination

    Relevance

    Deficiency


    Good Outcomes (continued)

    • Reliability – degree to which outcomes can be measured consistently over time

    • Discrimination – degree to which trainee’s performances on the outcome actually reflect true differences in performance

    • Practicality – refers to the ease with which the outcomes measures can be collected


    Training Evaluation Practices

    Percentage of Courses Using Outcome

    Outcomes


    Evaluation Procedures


    Utility


    [(Ns)*(T)*(r)*(SDy)*(Zs)]-[(N)*(C)]

    • Ns = number of applicants selected

    • T = tenure of selected group in years

    • r = correlation between predictor and job performance (VALIDITY)

    • SDy = standard deviation of job performance

    • Zs = average standard predictor score of selected group

    • N = number of applicants

    • C = cost per applicant


    [(Nc)*(T)*(r)*(SDy)*(Zs)]-[(N)*(C)]

    • Nc = number of trainees who complete program

    • T = duration of training benefit

    • r = correlation between training criterion and job performance (VALIDITY)

    • SDy = standard deviation of job performance

    • Zs = average standard criterion score of trainees

    • N =total number of trainees enrolled

    • C = cost per trainee


    Training Costs

    • Direct

    • Indirect

    • Development

    • Overhead

    • Compensation for Trainees


    For On the Job Training $81,000

    • 50 = Ns = number of trainees who complete program

    • 1 = T = duration of training benefit

    • .50 = r = correlation between training criterion and job performance (VALIDITY)

    • 4800 = SDy = standard deviation of job performance (assume 40% of base pay . . . $12,000 * .40)

    • .80 = Zs = average standard criterion score of trainees

    • 100 = N = total number of trainees enrolled

    • 150 = C = cost per trainee

    [(Ns)*(T)*(r)*(SDy)*(Zs)]-[(N)*(C)]

    (50 * 1 * .50 * 4800 * .8) - (100 * 150)


    Experimental Designs


    Experimental DesignsChoices

    • Pretest/posttest

    • Control Groups


    Experimental Designs

    • 1: 1 group, posttest only

    • 2: 1 group, pretest/posttest

    • 3: Pretest/posttest control group

    • 4: Solomon four-group

    • 5: Time-series

    • 6: Nonequivalent control group


    Experimental Designs Validity

    • Internal

    • External


    History

    Maturation

    Testing

    Instrumentation

    Regression toward the mean

    Differential selection

    Experimental mortality

    Interactions

    Diffusion/imitation of treatments

    Compensatory equalization of treatments

    Rivalry/desirability of treatments

    Demoralization

    Experimental DesignsThreats to Internal Validity


    Experimental DesignsThreats to External Validity

    • Reactive effect of pretesting

    • Interaction of selection & treatment

    • Reactive effects of experimental settings

    • Multiple-treatment interference


    Issues in Training Validity

    • Training validity

    • Transfer validity

    • Intra-organizational validity

    • Inter-organizational validity


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