Chapter 8 creativity i
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Chapter 8: Creativity I. The Creative Person, Creative Process, and Creative Dramatics Artwork by Rene Schute (1969). Two interrelated purposes of gifted education. To help these children and adolescents become more self-actualized, creative individuals

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Chapter 8: Creativity I

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Chapter 8 creativity i

Chapter 8: Creativity I

The Creative Person, Creative Process,

and Creative Dramatics

Artwork by Rene Schute (1969)


Two interrelated purposes of gifted education

Two interrelated purposes of gifted education

  • To help these children and adolescents become more self-actualized, creative individuals

  • To better enable them to make creative contributions to society

    “The gift of fantasy has meant more to me than my talent for absorbing knowledge” ~Einstein


5 levels of creativity

5 Levels of Creativity

  • Intuitive expressive level

  • Academic and technical level

  • Inventive level

  • Innovative level

  • Genius level

  • “little c”  “middle c”  “big C


Characteristics of creative people

Characteristics of Creative people

  • Piirto’s 4 core attitudes – naïveté, self-discipline, risk-taking, group trust

  • Maslow’s 15 Characteristics of Self-Actualized People

  • Dabrowski’s Theory of Positive Disintegration

  • Csikszentmihalyi’s Paradoxical and Complex Characteristics of Creative Persons – binary traits manifested simultaneously

  • Not all creative characteristics apply to all creative people, some are “domain specific”

  • “Because of their high energy, eagerness, inquisitiveness, rapid talking, and overactivity, some creative students have been diagnosed as having ADHD…[yet] some [not all] do have ADHD” (Davis & Rimm p. 208)

  • Simonton (2003) noted, “Genius-Level talents probably reside at the delicate balance between a healthy and an unhealthy personality” (p. 362)


Creative abilities

Creative Abilities

  • Guilford/Torrance’s four classic or commonly accepted creative abilities: fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration

  • Other abilities: problem finding/sensitivity/defining, visualization, ability to regress, analogical thinking, evaluation, analysis, synthesis, transformation, extend boundaries, intuition, predict outcomes, resist premature closure, concentration, logical thinking, aesthetic thinking, etc.


The creative process 3 views

The Creative Process - 3 Views

  • The sequence of stages to proceed in when solving a problem

  • The change in perception where new relationships, meanings, or new applications are identified

  • The techniques or strategies that are used to produce new ideas, meanings, and combinations


Wallas model 1926 w cropley s extension 1997

Wallas Model (1926) w/Cropley’s Extension (1997)

  • Preparation

  • Information– Learning or remembering special knowledge

  • Incubation

  • Illumination

  • Verification

  • Communication – Achieving closure, gaining feedback, sharing with other audiences

  • Validation – Evaluation by others

    - In the original Wallas model, “Implementation” was not addressed. (How is the solution to be carried out?)

    - In both Wallas & Cropley models, stages may be skipped or the creative thinker may backtrack.


Systems model of creativity csikzentmihalyi 1996

Systems Model of Creativity – (Csikzentmihalyi, 1996)

  • Domain

  • Field

  • Individual

  • Creativity happens when the individual invents, discovers, or creates within the domain and his/her creations are accepted as attractive and valuable by others who are established in the field.

    - If any of these components are absent, the product does not become valued as “creativity” at that time.


The creative problem solving model

The Creative Problem Solving Model

Osborn (1963), Parnes (1981), Treffinger & Isaksen (2005), Treffinger, Isaksen, & Dorval (1994)

  • Fact Finding - Who What, When, Where, Why and How questions *

  • Problem Finding – Definition of a problem determines the nature of the solutions

  • Idea Finding – Brainstorming stage*

  • Solution Finding – Listing of criteria for evaluation of ideas (ex. evaluation matrix)*

  • Acceptance Finding – Idea Implementation, assisters vs. resisters

    * Included in Alex Osborn’s Original Creative Problem Solving Model (1963)


Important items about cps model

Important Items About CPS Model:

  • 5 Steps of CPS allow flexible movement from any one stage to any other stage.

  • In each phase, divergent thinking takes place first, followed by convergent thinking to select the most promising ideas.

  • Instruction in creative thinking SHOULD NOT ONLY focus on the Stage 3 – “Idea Finding” phase where brainstorming and divergent thinking occurs.

  • REALISTIC creative thinking also relies on gathering facts and data, problem definition, evaluation and implementation of ideas.


Piirto s creative process 2003

Piirto’s Creative Process (2003)

  • Inspiration

  • Imagery

  • Imagination

  • Intuition

  • Insight

  • Incubation

  • Improvisation

    (no emphasis on implementation or closure, however)


Creative dramatics

Creative Dramatics

  • Examples of creative dramatics include warm-ups, movement exercises, sensory and body awareness, pantomime and playmaking

  • Creative dramatics stimulate and strengthen (Carelli, 1981):

    Divergent and critical thinking, imagination, problem solving, sensory awareness, concentration, physical self control, identification and control of emotions, sense of humor, self-confidence, empathy and sympathy


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