Chapter 8 creativity i
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Chapter 8: Creativity I. The Creative Person, Creative Process, and Creative Dramatics Artwork by Rene Schute (1969). Two interrelated purposes of gifted education. To help these children and adolescents become more self-actualized, creative individuals

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Chapter 8: Creativity I

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Chapter 8: Creativity I

The Creative Person, Creative Process,

and Creative Dramatics

Artwork by Rene Schute (1969)


Two interrelated purposes of gifted education

  • To help these children and adolescents become more self-actualized, creative individuals

  • To better enable them to make creative contributions to society

    “The gift of fantasy has meant more to me than my talent for absorbing knowledge” ~Einstein


5 Levels of Creativity

  • Intuitive expressive level

  • Academic and technical level

  • Inventive level

  • Innovative level

  • Genius level

  • “little c”  “middle c”  “big C


Characteristics of Creative people

  • Piirto’s 4 core attitudes – naïveté, self-discipline, risk-taking, group trust

  • Maslow’s 15 Characteristics of Self-Actualized People

  • Dabrowski’s Theory of Positive Disintegration

  • Csikszentmihalyi’s Paradoxical and Complex Characteristics of Creative Persons – binary traits manifested simultaneously

  • Not all creative characteristics apply to all creative people, some are “domain specific”

  • “Because of their high energy, eagerness, inquisitiveness, rapid talking, and overactivity, some creative students have been diagnosed as having ADHD…[yet] some [not all] do have ADHD” (Davis & Rimm p. 208)

  • Simonton (2003) noted, “Genius-Level talents probably reside at the delicate balance between a healthy and an unhealthy personality” (p. 362)


Creative Abilities

  • Guilford/Torrance’s four classic or commonly accepted creative abilities: fluency, flexibility, originality, elaboration

  • Other abilities: problem finding/sensitivity/defining, visualization, ability to regress, analogical thinking, evaluation, analysis, synthesis, transformation, extend boundaries, intuition, predict outcomes, resist premature closure, concentration, logical thinking, aesthetic thinking, etc.


The Creative Process - 3 Views

  • The sequence of stages to proceed in when solving a problem

  • The change in perception where new relationships, meanings, or new applications are identified

  • The techniques or strategies that are used to produce new ideas, meanings, and combinations


Wallas Model (1926) w/Cropley’s Extension (1997)

  • Preparation

  • Information– Learning or remembering special knowledge

  • Incubation

  • Illumination

  • Verification

  • Communication – Achieving closure, gaining feedback, sharing with other audiences

  • Validation – Evaluation by others

    - In the original Wallas model, “Implementation” was not addressed. (How is the solution to be carried out?)

    - In both Wallas & Cropley models, stages may be skipped or the creative thinker may backtrack.


Systems Model of Creativity – (Csikzentmihalyi, 1996)

  • Domain

  • Field

  • Individual

  • Creativity happens when the individual invents, discovers, or creates within the domain and his/her creations are accepted as attractive and valuable by others who are established in the field.

    - If any of these components are absent, the product does not become valued as “creativity” at that time.


The Creative Problem Solving Model

Osborn (1963), Parnes (1981), Treffinger & Isaksen (2005), Treffinger, Isaksen, & Dorval (1994)

  • Fact Finding - Who What, When, Where, Why and How questions *

  • Problem Finding – Definition of a problem determines the nature of the solutions

  • Idea Finding – Brainstorming stage*

  • Solution Finding – Listing of criteria for evaluation of ideas (ex. evaluation matrix)*

  • Acceptance Finding – Idea Implementation, assisters vs. resisters

    * Included in Alex Osborn’s Original Creative Problem Solving Model (1963)


Important Items About CPS Model:

  • 5 Steps of CPS allow flexible movement from any one stage to any other stage.

  • In each phase, divergent thinking takes place first, followed by convergent thinking to select the most promising ideas.

  • Instruction in creative thinking SHOULD NOT ONLY focus on the Stage 3 – “Idea Finding” phase where brainstorming and divergent thinking occurs.

  • REALISTIC creative thinking also relies on gathering facts and data, problem definition, evaluation and implementation of ideas.


Piirto’s Creative Process (2003)

  • Inspiration

  • Imagery

  • Imagination

  • Intuition

  • Insight

  • Incubation

  • Improvisation

    (no emphasis on implementation or closure, however)


Creative Dramatics

  • Examples of creative dramatics include warm-ups, movement exercises, sensory and body awareness, pantomime and playmaking

  • Creative dramatics stimulate and strengthen (Carelli, 1981):

    Divergent and critical thinking, imagination, problem solving, sensory awareness, concentration, physical self control, identification and control of emotions, sense of humor, self-confidence, empathy and sympathy


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