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Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 Transport and Defense Lesson 2 Structure, Movement, and Control Lesson 3 Reproduction and Development Chapter Wrap-Up. CMCD/Getty Images. Chapter Menu. What are the functions of the human body systems?. Chapter Introduction. What do you think?.

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Chapter menu

Chapter Introduction

Lesson 1Transport and Defense

Lesson 2Structure, Movement, and Control

Lesson 3Reproduction and Development

Chapter Wrap-Up

CMCD/Getty Images

Chapter Menu


Chapter introduction

What are the functions of the human body systems?

Chapter Introduction


Chapter introduction1

What do you think?

Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each of these statements. As you view this presentation, see if you change your mind about any of the statements.

Chapter Introduction


Chapter introduction2

1.A human body has organ systems that carry out specific functions.

2.The body protects itself from disease.

3.All bones in the skeletal system are hollow.

4.The endocrine system makes hormones.

Do you agree or disagree?

Chapter Introduction


Chapter introduction3

5.The testes produce sperm.

6.Puberty occurs during infancy.

Do you agree or disagree?

Chapter Introduction


Lesson 1 reading guide kc

Transport and Defense

  • How do nutrients enter and leave the body?

  • How do nutrients travel through the body?

  • How does the body defend itself from harmful invaders?

Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC


Lesson 1 reading guide vocab

Transport and Defense

  • lymphocyte

  • immunity

  • organ system

  • homeostasis

  • nutrient

  • Calorie

Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab


Lesson 1 1

The Body’s Organization

  • Groups of organs that work together and perform a specific task are organ systems.

  • Organ systems provide movement, transport substances, and perform many other functions.

MedicalRF.com/Getty Images

Lesson 1-1


Lesson 1 11

The Body’s Organization (cont.)

Organ systems work together and maintain homeostasis, or steady internal conditions when external conditions change.

Lesson 1-1


Lesson 1 2

Digestion and Excretion

  • The human body breaks down food through the process of digestion.

  • Substances that are not used by the body are removed through the digestive system and by the excretory system.

Lesson 1-2


Lesson 1 21

Digestion

Food enters the digestive system through the mouth.

Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source

Lesson 1-2


Lesson 1 22

Digestion (cont.)

The esophagus connects the mouth to the stomach—a flexible baglike organ that contains enzymes that break down food into smaller parts to be used by the body.

Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source

Lesson 1-2


Lesson 1 23

Digestion (cont.)

  • The small intestine has two functions—digestion and absorption.

  • Nutrients are absorbed by the body through the small intestine.

Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source

Lesson 1-2


Lesson 1 24

Digestion (cont.)

The liver makes bile and the pancreas makes enzymes, both of which break down food in the small intestine.

Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source

Lesson 1-2


Lesson 1 25

Digestion (cont.)

  • The large intestine receives solid waste from the small intestine.

  • The large intestine absorbs excess water from the waste material.

  • The rectum of the large intestine stores the solid waste until the waste is expelled from the body.

Lesson 1-2


Lesson 1 26

Digestion (cont.)

Some foods, like insoluble fiber, that are not digested leave the body through the rectum.

Hutchings Photography/Digital Light Source

Lesson 1-2


Lesson 1 27

Digestion (cont.)

  • Nutrients are the parts of food used by the body to grow and survive.

  • Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals are all nutrients.

  • Calories are a measure of the amount of energy in food.

Lesson 1-2


Lesson 1 28

Excretion

The excretory system removes liquid and gas wastes from the body. This system includes—

  • lungs

  • skin

  • liver

  • kidneys

  • ureter

  • bladder

  • urethra

Lesson 1-2


Lesson 1 29

Excretion(cont.)

  • When the liver breaks down proteins, urea forms. Urea is toxic if it stays in the body.

  • The kidneys remove urea from the body by making urine.

Lesson 1-2


Lesson 1 210

Excretion(cont.)

  • Urine leaves each kidney through the ureter and is stored in a flexible sac, called the bladder.

  • Urine is removed from the body through the urethra.

Lesson 1-2


Lesson 1 211

How does food enter and leave the body?

Lesson 1-2


Lesson 1 3

Respiration

The respiratory system exchanges gases between the body and the environment.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 31

Respiration (cont.)

  • When you inhale, air enters the nostrils and passes through the pharynx to the trachea.

  • Inhaling and exhaling require the movement of a muscle under the lungs called the diaphragm.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 32

Respiration (cont.)

The trachea, or windpipe, connects the pharynx to the bronchi.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 33

Respiration (cont.)

There are two bronchi; one enters the left lung and one enters the right lung.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 34

Respiration (cont.)

The bronchi divide into smaller tubes that end in tiny groups of cells called alveoli.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 35

Respiration (cont.)

The alveoli are surrounded by blood vessels called capillaries.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 36

Respiration (cont.)

Gas Exchange

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 37

Respiration (cont.)

vessel

Science Use a tube in the body that carries fluids such as blood

Common Use a ship

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 38

Circulation

  • Oxygen in the alveoli enters the capillaries.

  • The blood inside capillaries transports oxygen to the rest of the body.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 39

Circulation(cont.)

The heart, blood, and blood vessels make up the circulatory system which transports nutrients, gases, wastes, and other substances through the body.

Image Source/Jupiterimages

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 310

Image Source/Jupiterimages

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 311

Circulation(cont.)

  • Blood vessels transport blood to all organs of the body.

  • Contractions of the heart’s muscles pump blood to the rest of the body.

  • Blood travels through the body in tiny tubes called vessels.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 312

Circulation(cont.)

  • Arteries carry blood away from your heart.

  • Veins carry blood back to your heart.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 313

Circulation(cont.)

Capillaries are tiny vessels that allow gases and nutrients to move between the blood and the entire body.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 314

Circulation(cont.)

How do nutrients travel through the body?

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 315

Circulation(cont.)

  • The liquid part of blood is called plasma and contains nutrients, water, and CO2.

  • Blood also contains red blood cells, which carry oxygen, and platelets, which help the body heal when a vessel is cut.

  • White blood cells help the body defend itself from toxins and diseases.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 316

Different people have different proteins on the surfaces of their red blood cells which scientists classify into groups called blood types.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 317

Lymphatic System

Tonsils, the spleen, the thymus, bone marrow, and lymph nodes are parts of the lymphatic system.

C Squared Studios/Getty Images

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 318

Lymphatic System(cont.)

  • The lymphatic system’s three main functions are removing excess fluids around organs, producing white blood cells, and absorbing and transporting fats.

  • The lymphatic system helps your body maintain fluid homeostasis.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 319

Lymphatic System(cont.)

  • Fluid that travels through the lymph vessels flows into organs called lymph nodes, which protect the body by removing toxins, wastes, and other harmful substances.

  • The lymphatic system makes white blood cells to help the body defend against infection.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 320

Lymphatic System(cont.)

Lymphocytes are a type of white blood cell that are made in the thymus, the spleen, and bone marrow.

lymphocyte

from Latin lympha, means “water”; and Greek kytos, means “hollow, as a cell or container”

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 321

Immunity

  • Protection from infection or toxins is called immunity.

  • The skeletal system produces immune cells, which include lymphocytes and other white blood cells, and the circulatory system transports them throughout the body.

  • The immune cells attack and destroy viruses, bacteria, and other foreign substances.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 322

Immunity(cont.)

  • Humans make billions of different types of antibodies.

  • Infectious diseases are caused by pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses, and are usually contagious.

  • A noninfectious disease is caused by the environment or a genetic disorder.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 323

Immunity(cont.)

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 324

Immunity(cont.)

  • The body’s first line of defense against viruses, bacteria, and harmful substances is the skin and mucus which prevent toxins and other substances from entering the body.

  • The second line of defense is the immune response in which white blood cells attack and destroy harmful substances.

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 325

Immunity(cont.)

The third line of defense is immune cells which make antibodies that destroy harmful substances.

How does the body defend itself from harmful invaders?

Lesson 1-3


Lesson 1 vs

  • The kidneys remove liquid wastes from the body.

Lesson 1 - VS


Lesson 1 vs1

  • The circulatory system transports nutrients, gases, wastes, and other substances through the body.

  • Immune cells detect and destroy viruses, bacteria, and other foreign substances.

Lesson 1 - VS


Lesson 1 lr1

Which does NOT help remove waste from the body?

A.kidneys

B.liver

C.lungs

D.white blood cells

Lesson 1 – LR1


Lesson 1 lr2

The heart, blood, and vessels make up what system?

A.circulatory

B.excretory

C.lymphatic

D.respiratory

Lesson 1 – LR2


Lesson 1 lr3

Which term refers to maintaining steady internal conditions as external conditions change?

A.calories

B.homeostasis

C.immunity

D.nutrients

Lesson 1 – LR3


Lesson 1 now

1.A human body has organ systems that carry out specific functions.

2.The body protects itself from disease.

Do you agree or disagree?

Lesson 1 - Now


Lesson 2 reading guide kc

Structure, Movement, and Control

  • How does the body move?

  • How does the body respond to changes in its environment?

Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC


Lesson 2 reading guide vocab

Structure, Movement, and Control

  • compact bone

  • spongy bone

  • neuron

  • reflex

  • hormone

Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab


Lesson 2 1

Structure and Movement

  • The skeletal system protects internal organs, provides support, helps the body move, and stores minerals, such as calcium.

  • An adult’s skeleton has 206 bones.

  • The skeleton also contains ligaments, tendons, and cartilage.

Lesson 2-1


Lesson 2 11

Structure and Movement(cont.)

  • Compact bone is the hard outer layer of bone.

  • Spongy bone is the interior region of bone that contains many tiny holes.

CMCD/Getty Images

Lesson 2-1


Lesson 2 12

Structure and Movement(cont.)

  • The muscular system is made of three different types of muscle tissue.

  • Skeletal muscle works with the skeletal system and helps you move.

Lesson 2-1


Lesson 2 13

Structure and Movement(cont.)

  • Cardiac muscle is only in the heart.

  • It continually contracts and relaxes and moves blood throughout your body.

Lesson 2-1


Lesson 2 14

Structure and Movement(cont.)

  • Smooth muscle tissue is in organs such as the stomach and the bladder.

  • Blood vessels also have smooth muscle tissue.

Lesson 2-1


Lesson 2 15

Structure and Movement(cont.)

What systems help the body move?

Lesson 2-1


Lesson 2 2

Control and Coordination

  • The brain and the spinal cord form the central nervous system.

  • All other nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system that extends throughout the entire body.

Doug Pensinger/Getty Images

Lesson 2-2


Lesson 2 21

Control and Coordination(cont.)

How does the body respond to changes in its environment?

Lesson 2-2


Lesson 2 22

Control and Coordination(cont.)

The nervous system is a group of organs and specialized cells that detect, process, and respond to information.

Lesson 2-2


Lesson 2 23

Nerve cells, or neurons, are the basic unit of the nervous system.

Doug Pensinger/Getty Images

Lesson 2-2


Lesson 2 24

Control and Coordination(cont.)

neuron

from Greek neuron, means “a nerve cell with appendages”

Lesson 2-2


Lesson 2 25

Control and Coordination(cont.)

  • Information enters the nervous system through neurons in the peripheral nervous system.

  • Most of the information then is sent to the central nervous system for processing.

  • After the central nervous system processes information, it signals the peripheral nervous system to respond.

Lesson 2-2


Lesson 2 26

Control and Coordination(cont.)

  • The body carries out both voluntary and involuntary functions that depend on the nervous system.

  • Automatic movements in response to a signal are called reflexes.

Lesson 2-2


Lesson 2 27

Lesson 2-2


Lesson 2 28

Control and Coordination(cont.)

Humans detect their external environment with five senses—vision, hearing, smell, touch, and taste.

Lesson 2-2


Lesson 2 29

Control and Coordination(cont.)

  • Each of the five senses has specific neurons that receive signals from the environment.

  • Information detected by the senses is sent to the spinal cord and then to the brain for processing and a response.

Lesson 2-2


Lesson 2 210

Endocrine System

The endocrine system, like the nervous system, sends signals to the body.

Mark Andersen/Getty Images

Lesson 2-2


Lesson 2 211

Endocrine System (cont.)

  • Chemical signals released by the organs of the endocrine system are called hormones.

  • Hormones travel in blood through blood vessels and cause organ systems to carry out specific functions.

  • Some hormones work with other organ systems to maintain homeostasis and other hormones work with many organ systems to help you grow.

Lesson 2-2


Lesson 2 vs

  • The skeletal system protects organs, provides support, helps the body move, and stores minerals.

CMCD/Getty Images

Lesson 2 - VS


Lesson 2 vs1

  • Skeletal muscle works with the skeletal system and helps you move.

Lesson 2 - VS


Lesson 2 vs2

  • Reflex signals are received by the spinal cord but are not processed by the brain. This helps the body respond quickly.

Lesson 2 - VS


Lesson 2 lr1

Which refers to the interior region of bone that contains tiny holes?

A.compact bone

B.hormone

C.peripheral bone

D.spongy bone

Lesson 2 – LR1


Lesson 2 lr2

Which body system uses hormones to send signals to the body?

A.endocrine

B.muscular

C.nervous

D.skeletal

Lesson 2 – LR2


Lesson 2 lr3

What type of cell is a neuron?

A.blood

B.muscle

C.nerve

D.skeletal

Lesson 2 – LR3


Lesson 2 now

Do you agree or disagree?

3.All bones in the skeletal system are hollow.

4.The endocrine system makes hormones.

Lesson 2 - Now


Lesson 3 reading guide kc

Reproduction and Development

  • What do the male and female reproductive systems do?

  • How do humans grow and change?

Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC


Lesson 3 reading guide vocab

Reproduction and Development

  • reproduction

  • gamete

  • sperm

  • ovum

  • fertilization

  • zygote

Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab


Lesson 3 1

Reproduction and Hormones

  • Some of the organs of the endocrine system produce hormones that help humans reproduce.

  • Reproduction is the process by which new organisms are produced.

Lesson 3-1


Lesson 3 11

Reproduction and Hormones(cont.)

  • Human reproductive cells, called gametes, are made by the male and female reproductive systems.

  • Male gametes are called sperm.

  • Female gametes are called ova, or eggs.

  • A sperm joins with an egg in a reproductive process called fertilization.

Lesson 3-1


Lesson 3 12

Reproduction and Hormones(cont.)

The cell that forms when an egg and a sperm join together is called a zygote.

zygote

from Greek zygoun, means “to join”

Lesson 3-1


Lesson 3 13

The male reproductive system produces sperm in the testes and delivers it to the female reproductive system.

Lesson 3-1


Lesson 3 14

Reproduction and Hormones(cont.)

  • Testosterone—also produced in the testes—helps sperm change from round cells to long, slender cells that can swim.

  • The penis is a tubelike structure that delivers sperm to the female reproductive system.

  • Sperm are transported in a fluid called semen which contains millions of sperm and nutrients that provide the sperm with energy.

Lesson 3-1


Lesson 3 15

Reproduction and Hormones(cont.)

What does the male reproductive system do?

Lesson 3-1


Lesson 3 16

The female reproductive system contains two ovaries where eggs grow and mature.

Lesson 3-1


Lesson 3 17

Reproduction and Hormones(cont.)

  • Two hormones made by the ovaries, estrogen and progesterone, help eggs mature.

  • Mature eggs are released from the ovaries and enter the fallopian tubes, which connect the ovaries to the uterus.

  • If sperm are also present in the fallopian tube, fertilization can occur as the egg enters the fallopian tube, and a zygote forms.

Lesson 3-1


Lesson 3 18

Reproduction and Hormones(cont.)

  • The endocrine system controls egg maturation and release and thickening of the lining of the uterus in a process called the menstrual cycle.

  • The menstrual cycle takes about 28 days and has three parts.

Lesson 3-1


Lesson 3 19

Reproduction and Hormones(cont.)

What does the female reproductive system do?

Lesson 3-1


Lesson 3 2

Human Development

  • During human development, the zygote develops into an embryo, which is a ball-shaped structure that attaches inside the uterus.

  • The embryo develops into a fetus, the last stage of birth.

  • During the developmental period, called pregnancy, the organ systems of the fetus will develop and the fetus will get larger.

Lesson 3-2


Lesson 3 21

Pregnancy

Brand X Pictures/PunchStock

Lesson 3-2


Lesson 3 22

During the first two years of life, called infancy, the muscular and nervous systems develop and an infant begins walking.

Lesson 3-2


Lesson 3 23

Human Development(cont.)

During childhood, which is from about 2 years to about 12 years of age, bones in the skeletal system grow longer and stronger, and the lymphatic system matures.

Bananastock/AGE Fotostock

Lesson 3-2


Lesson 3 24

Human Development(cont.)

During adolescence, growth of the skeletal and muscular systems continues, organs get larger, and the male and female reproductive systems mature.

Jack Hollingsworth/Getty Images

Lesson 3-2


Lesson 3 25

Human Development(cont.)

During later adulthood, hair turns gray, wrinkles might form in the skin, and bones become weaker in a process called aging.

MedioImages

Lesson 3-2


Lesson 3 26

Human Development(cont.)

How do humans change during adulthood?

Lesson 3-2


Lesson 3 vs

  • Sperm are produced in the testes and develop inside each testis in the seminiferous tubules.

Lesson 3 - VS


Lesson 3 vs1

  • Eggs grow and mature in the ovaries.

  • During pregnancy, a zygote develops into an embryo and then into a fetus.

Lesson 3 - VS


Lesson 3 lr1

Which is another name for female gametes or eggs?

A.hormones

B.ova

C.sperm

D.zygotes

Lesson 3 – LR1


Lesson 3 lr2

Which connects a woman’s ovaries to the uterus?

A.zygote

B.ureter

C.fallopian tubes

D.embryo

Lesson 3 – LR2


Lesson 3 lr3

Which refers to the first stage of life when the muscular and nervous systems develop?

A.pregnancy

B.infancy

C.childhood

D.adolescence

Lesson 3 – LR3


Lesson 3 now

Do you agree or disagree?

5.The testes produce sperm.

6.Puberty occurs during infancy.

Lesson 3 - Now


Chapter review menu

Key Concept Summary

Interactive Concept Map

Chapter Review

Standardized Test Practice

Chapter Review Menu


The big idea

Human body systems transport materials; defend against pathogens; provide structure, movement, and control; and enable the species to survive.

The BIG Idea


Key concepts 1

Lesson 1: Transport and Defense

  • Nutrients enter the body through the digestive system. Wastes and water leave the body through the excretory system. Oxygen enters the body and carbon dioxide leaves the body through the respiratory system.

  • Substances such as nutrients and oxygen reach the body’s cells through the circulatory system.

  • The lymphatic system helps the body defend itself against harmful invaders.

C Squared Studios/Getty Images

Key Concepts 1


Key concepts 2

Lesson 2: Structure, Movement, and Control

  • The muscular system and the skeletal system work together and help the body move. The skeletal system provides the body with structure and protects other organ systems.

  • The nervous system and the endocrine system work together and help the body respond to changes in the environment.

CMCD/Getty Images

Key Concepts 2


Key concepts 3

Lesson 3: Reproduction and Development

  • The male and female reproductive systems ensure survival of the human species.

  • Humans develop and grow both before and after birth.

Key Concepts 3


Chapter review mc1

The human body breaks down food through what process?

A.respiration

B.excretion

C.digestion

D.circulation

Chapter Review – MC1


Chapter review mc2

Which removes carbon dioxide and water from your body as you exhale?

A.bronchi

B.kidneys

C.lungs

D.skin

Chapter Review – MC2


Chapter review mc3

Which system protects internal organs, provides support, helps the body move, and stores minerals?

A.skeletal

B.nervous

C.muscular

D.endocrine

Chapter Review – MC3


Chapter review mc4

Which refers to an automatic movement in response to a signal?

A.homeostasis

B.hormone

C.neuron

D.reflex

Chapter Review – MC4


Chapter review mc5

Which is the cell that forms when an egg and a sperm join together?

A.zygote

B.sperm

C.egg

D.embryo

Chapter Review – MC5


Chapter review stp1

What connects the mouth to the stomach?

A.small intestine

B.lung

C.large intestine

D.esophagus

Chapter Review – STP1


Chapter review stp2

What type of white blood cell is made in the thymus, spleen, and bone marrow?

A.antibody

B.lymph node

C.lymphocyte

D.ovum

Chapter Review – STP2


Chapter review stp3

Which describes the hard outer layer of bone?

A.cardiac muscle

B.compact bone

C.ligament

D.spongy bone

Chapter Review – STP3


Chapter review stp4

What is the basic unit of the nervous system?

A.blood cell

B.hormone

C.lymphocyte

D.neuron

Chapter Review – STP4


Chapter review stp5

What is the developmental period during which the fetus develops and grows?

A.adolescence

B.fertilization

C.infancy

D.pregnancy

Chapter Review – STP5


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