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2010 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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2010. First Responder Awareness (FRA). Instructors: Jerry Earley, CIH Gary Duran. Intro to Hazardous Materials. At the. First Responder. Awareness Level. The Haz Mat Problem. Use/misuse of Haz Mats create “Events” Modern standard of living requires Haz Mat use and transport

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2010

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2010

First Responder Awareness (FRA)

Instructors: Jerry Earley, CIH

Gary Duran


Intro to Hazardous Materials

At the

First Responder

Awareness Level


The Haz Mat Problem

  • Use/misuse of Haz Mats create “Events”

    • Modern standard of living requires Haz Mat use and transport

    • “Events”* will happen

      • *(accidents/emergencies/incidents)


The Haz Mat Problem

  • Over 16 million chemicals in existence

    • 70,000 potentially classified as “hazardous”


Elements of Hazmat Problem

  • Volume of hazardous materials

  • The human factor

  • “Events” will happen!


Three Primary Risks

  • Life/Health

  • Environment

  • Property


The Haz Mat Problem

  • We can’t eliminate events, but can

    • Mitigate events

    • Prepare for events

    • Effectively & efficiently respond


Ms. Gump, your boy’s “different”...

The Haz Mat Problem

  • Haz Mat events are “different”…

    • Must respond safely, slowly & methodically


What is “Hazardous”?

  • No one universal definition for, BUT:

  • UN System helps classify them

    • 9 hazard classes

Radioactive

Explosive

Flammable*

Misc. Dangerous Substances

Poison

Compressed Gases

Oxidizer

Corrosive


Hazard Classes w/Examples

Radioactive

Explosive

Poison

Corrosive

Flammable

Oxidizer


Explosives (Class 1)

  • Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

  • Black Powder

  • Lead azide

  • ANFO

  • PETN


Gases (Class 2)

  • Anhydrous Ammonia

  • Hydrogen Sulfide

  • Phosgene

  • Acetylene

  • Diborane


Flammable/Combustible Liquids (Class 3)

  • Gasoline

  • Alcoholic Beverages

  • Hydrazine

  • Toluene

  • Acetone


Flammable Solids (Class 4)

  • Aluminum phosphide

  • Naphthalene

  • Sodium

  • Barium

  • Carbon


Oxidizers & Organic Peroxides (Class 5)

  • Red Fuming Nitric Acid

  • Nitrogen tetroxide

  • Potassium nitrate

  • Calcium Nitrate

  • Fluorine


Poisonous & Infections Materials (Class 6)

  • Hydrazine

  • Nicotine

  • Acrolein

  • Fluorine

  • Bromine


Radioactive Materials (Class 7)

  • Uranium Hexafluoride

  • Thorium


Corrosive Materials (Class 8)

  • Red Fuming Nitric Acid

  • Sodium hydroxide

  • Sulfuric Acid

  • Hydrazine

  • Bromine


Brucker

Batteries

Misc. Hazardous Materials (Class 9)

  • Ammonium nitrate fertilizers

  • Hazardous waste

  • Wheelchairs

  • Automobiles

  • Asbestos


Multiple Hazards & Health Effects

  • Regulations are performance standards

  • More than one hazard class

  • Markings don’t show all hazards

  • Think of multiple hazards always!


x

Haz Mat Commons & Typicals


Haz Mat Commons

  • Most common:

    • Release:Petroleum products

    • Locations:Fixed facilities

    • Factor:Collision/Overturn


Haz Mat Typicals

  • The typical:

    • Responder exposure: Inhalation

    • Number of response agencies: Four

    • Response problem: Poor management!


First Responder’s Role

  • Primary First Responder role

    • Safely and competently respond

    • Within appropriate —

      • level

      • resources

      • and capabilities


First Responder Awareness

  • OSHA definition

    • Likely to witness/discover a release

    • Can initiate notifying authorities

    • Take no further actions


Other Levels

  • FRO

  • TECH

  • SPECIALIST


All Levels Have Limits

  • Mission/Assignment

  • Training

  • Equipment


Know Your…

  • Level

  • Role

  • Responsibility

  • Limits


Pertinent Laws & Regs

  • Title 8 CCR 5192(q)

    • Safety/Planning/Response/Training

  • VC 2454

    • IC for incidents on Highway/Road

  • VC 2453, H&SC 6.95, SARA III §304

    • Planning & Notifications.


Hazardous Materials Recognition & Safety


Hazard Recognition

  • Must Know How to Recognize Haz Mat Incidents


Importance of Recognition

  • Any responder can encounter hazmats

  • Any responder can get hurt

Percent of responder injured at hazmat incidents.


Importance of Recognition

  • Recognition leads to safety

  • Safety leads to lives preserved


Not Always Reported as Hazmats

  • Many reported as:

    • Traffic accident

    • Medical aid

    • Fire, person down, etc.

  • Initial report may not indicate presence of hazardous materials!


Hazmat Recognition Clues

  • Occupancy/Location

  • Container Shapes

  • Markings & Colors

  • Placards & Labels


Hazmat Recognition Clues

  • Shipping Papers and MSDS

  • Senses

  • Other Clues


Occupancy & Location

Foose Foundry


Hazmat Locations

  • Haz Mats manufactured, stored, used and transported anywhere


Hazmat Locations

  • Be aware of “Common” locations


Container Shapes

Gendron Gases


Containers and Packages

  • Shape may be a clue to the contents

    • Container

    • Package

    • Truck

    • Tank


Container Shapes

  • DOT specification vehicle

  • Compressed gas cylinders

  • Common above-ground tanks


DOT Spec Vehicles

  • DOT 406/MC 306

Taimanao Trucking

Taimanao Trucking


DOT Spec Vehicles

  • DOT 407/MC 307


DOT Spec Vehicles

  • DOT 412/MC 312


DOT Spec Vehicles

  • MC 331


DOT Spec Vehicles

  • MC 331 – Tube Trailer


DOT Spec Vehicles

  • MC 338


Gas Cylinders


Storage Tanks


Potential Stresses

  • Thermal

  • Mechanical

  • Chemical

  • Radiation


Senses

  • Last resort!

  • Highest danger!


Other Recognition Clues?

  • Responsible Party

  • Witnesses

  • Business plan


“Clues” are “Clues”!

  • They are a,

    • Warning

    • Note of caution

    • Indication of things to come

    • But not always all the answers!


Outward Warning Signs

  • Evidence of leak, fire, smoke, vapors, unusual colors/odors

  • People running from, or collapsed in the area


Outward Warning Signs

  • Sound of an operating relief valve

  • Remember: Assume Haz Mat & look for clues or warning signs until you confirm the absence of hazardous materials!


Special Markings

  • NFPA 704

  • Biohazards

  • Military markings

  • Pipeline markers

  • Hazcom markings

  • Railcards


Placards and Labels

  • Know hazard classes

    • Colors

    • Symbols

    • Placard/label shapes


Components of Placards

Symbol

Background and Border

1654

ID Number and Division Number

6.1


Placards and Labels

  • Know placard limits

    • Multiple and subsidiary hazards

    • “Dangerous” placard meaning

      • (Table 1 & 2 commodities)

    • Compliance and enforcement


Shipping Papers

  • Preferred Haz Mat Identification Source

  • Know types and locations


Locations of Shipping Papers

  • Truck: Bill of Lading (In cab)


Locations of Shipping Papers

  • Air: Air Bill (In cockpit)


Locations of Shipping Papers

  • Rail: Waybill & Consist (With crew)


Lundgren Shipping

Locations of Shipping Papers

  • Vessel: Dangerous Cargo Manifest (On bridge)


?

Shipping Papers

  • Should include info about products

  • But they may not always be accurate or complete


MSDS

Diforsuranol

Make out your will. It’s all over.Death imminent. No hope for you pal!

Bad stuff!

Touch this and you die.

Call 911 now!

Material Safety Data Sheets

  • Should be available for each Haz Mat in the workplace

    • Required by OSHA Hazard Communication Regs

  • Provides valuable information


First Operational Thought

  • Experienced responders have a positive safety attitude

    • Use recognized safety procedures

    • Develop awareness of possible secondary & tertiary hazards

    • Treat all Haz Mat events with respect & anticipate problems


First Operational Thought

  • Cross reference 3 or more sources

  • Ensure back-up plans are in place

  • Set up and use decon procedures early


Mental Safe Approach

  • Maintain a Mental Safe Approach Tactic

    • Always keep your distance

    • Upwind, Upgrade and Upstream!

    • Be a responder, not an indicator


Ways Hazmats Can Kill

  • Toxicity

  • Radioactivity

  • Asphyxiation

  • Explosion

  • Flammability

  • Corrosion


Safety, Isolation and Notifications (S.I.N.)

“I have sinned…”

J. Swaggert


Definition - SIN

  • S = Safety

  • I = Isolation

  • N = Notifications


Responder Actions

  • All responders should SIN

  • Basic initial action

  • Done at all hazmat incidents


First Operational Thought

  • The first operational thought for all responder levels is safety!


First Operational Thought

  • First operational thought is safety

    • Safety starts with first responder on-scene

    • All must have positive safety attitude


Positive Safety Attitude

  • Three techniques to ensure safety

    • Safe approach

    • Safe assessment

    • Key safety guides for all


Safe Approach

Upgrade

Upstream

Upwind


Safe Distance


Safe Approach

  • Position vehicles away from event…

    • For quick departure!

  • Advise responders of safe route of approach.


Conduct Safe Assessment

  • Conduct safe size-up

  • Or you may have no size-up


Conduct Safe Assessment

  • Don’t get close enough for positive ID

  • Slow down, shut-off A/C, observe area

  • Position vehicles headed away

  • Use binoculars to identify/assess


Desired Initial Actions

  • Safe Approach

  • Isolate & deny entry

  • Make initial Notifications

  • Establish temporary command


General Safety Precautions

  • 10 key Safety Guides/Do’s & Don’ts

    • In the book...

    • Which do need to improve on?


OSHA Requirements

  • IC must designate a Safety Officer

  • Safety Officer ensures safety on-scene

  • Safety Officer enforces and First Responders observe, safety rules


First Operational Priority

  • Isolate & deny entry!


First Operational Priority

  • FRAs — usually isolate and deny entry by establishing a “Perimeter”

    • Use ERG recommendations


First Operational Priority

  • Dilemma

    • Safe distance vs. control of Perimeter


Perimeters & Control Zones

  • Purpose of Perimeters & Control Zones

    • Ensure safety and isolation

    • Control the scene

    • Limit spread of contamination

    • Allow for safe working area


Perimeters & Control Zones

  • Main operational difference

    • FROs usually set Perimeters

    • Techs/Specialists set Zones


Control Zones

  • Exclusion/Hot Zone

  • Contamination Reduction/Warm Zone

  • Support/Cold Zone


Exclusion Zone


Contamination Reduction Zone


Support Zone


Control Zones

Contamination Reduction Zone

Exclusion Zone

Support Zone


First Operational Priority

  • Isolate and deny entry


Perimeter Control Objectives

  • Control

    • Entry Points

    • Perimeter

    • Access inside perimeter


Perimeter Control Tactics

  • Determine size/extent of perimeter

    • Per ERG!

    • Downwind perimeter usually longer

ERG


Downwind Perimeter


Perimeter Control Tactics

  • Identify all entry points

  • Control all entry points

  • Identify and establish boundaries


Establishing Boundaries

  • Unstaffed barricades usually ineffective

  • Be aware of ignition sources

    • Vehicles

    • Flares

  • Use existing barriers


Control Access to Perimeter

  • Deny entry to all

  • Stage responders not assigned

  • Establish emergency exit procedures

  • Establish control zones

  • Watch for wind shifts


Perimeters and Control Zones

  • IC is ultimately responsible


First Operational Alert

  • Notifications


Types of Notifications

  • Mandatory notifications

  • Resource requests

  • Report of conditions


RP Notification Requirements

  • Responsible party must make “Mandatory” notifications

    • To proper authorities

    • Releases with potential adverse impact

      • Health

      • Safety

      • Environment


Notification Requirements

  • Responder — make same notifications as back-up

  • RP must make “mandatory” notifications

    • Possible civil/criminal penalties for non–notification!


Notification Requirements

  • “Mandatory” notifications

    • Local 911 — Local dispatch

    • CUPA/Administering Agency — ???

    • State Warning Center — (800) 852-7550

    • National Response Center — (800) 424-8802


Other Notifications Required

  • Pesticides – County Agriculture

  • Spill in state waters – OES

  • Highways – CHP

  • Radiologicals – DHS

  • Wildlife – DF&G

  • Prop 65 substances – County


Notifications for Schools

  • Notify District Superintendent

    • Acutely hazardous material release

    • Within ½ mile of a school


Responsibility for Notifications

  • RP makes mandatory notifications

  • Responders:

    • Releases near schools

    • Prop 65 notification


Information Needed

What

  • Location

  • Name of person reporting

  • Substance released

Who

When

Where


Information Needed

  • Nature of problem

  • Quantity released

  • Other potential hazards

    • (e.g. fire!)


Key Notification Points

  • For Federal Agencies

    • National Response Center

    • (800) 424-8802

N

R

C


Key Notification Points

  • For State Agencies

    • State Warning Center

    • (800) 852-7550

O

E

S


Notification Issues

  • May need notification checklist


Rules of Thumb

  • Know local resources & request early

  • Request all response agencies

  • Know Mutual Aid for area Haz Mat teams, local industry, state & federal resources

  • Stage incoming resources


Accessing Resources

  • Pre-awareness and contact lists

  • Develop 24 hour contact points & notification/contact lists, and

  • Put them in a “User-friendly” format


Report of Conditions

  • What you see

  • What you need

  • What you are doing

    • (or have done)


3 Sources—Preferred Minimum

NIOSH

CHRIS


DOT Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG)

  • ERG purpose:

    • Basic safety tool

    • Basic identification

    • Initial actions


MSDS as an IDHA Tool

  • Answers key questions

    • What is it?

    • How can I protect my self?

    • What will it do to me?

      • MSDS often provide toxicological info.


CHEMTREC

  • CHEMTREC

    • Chemical Transportation Emergency Center

  • 24 Hour technical information center

  • One person call (800) 424-9300


Other Reference Guides

  • Condensed Chemical Dictionary

  • CHRIS Manual

  • NIOSH Pocket Guide

  • Sax Book


Other Reference Guides

  • Farm Chemical Handbook

  • AAR book

  • NFPA guide


Other Reference Guides

  • Merck Index

  • Computer databases

  • Pesticide labels


Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Location

    • (open field vs. downtown)


Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Time

    • (evening or day or hours next to a school)


Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Weather

    • (wind, temperature, rain)


Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Size of problem

    • (5 gallon vs. 500 gallon)


Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Stage of incident

    • (short vs. long duration release)


Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Nature of materials

    • Semi Bad Stuff or

    • Bad Stuff or

    • Really Bad Stuff


Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Type, condition & behavior of container


Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Responders & equipment


Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Availability & amount of control agents


Predicted Behavior

  • Before intervention

  • Try to predict behavior of release

    • What will it do?

    • Where will it go?

    • What will it hurt?


Baseline Question

  • Before intervention

    • Outcome of natural stabilization?

    • Favorable impact intervention will make?


Complications in Hazard Assessment

  • Mixed load placard — “Dangerous”

  • 4-4-4 NFPA 704 marking


Complications in Hazard Assessment

  • Multiple Haz Mats or “Mixed Bag” problem

    • May need chemist or Haz Mat team to aid in IDHA and action planning


Intelligence vs. Information

  • “Intelligence” — information that is:

    • Verified

    • Organized

    • Analyzed

    • Prioritized and

    • Useful for valid IDHA


FRA Role

  • Won’t develop written plans (usually)

  • Should have response objectives

  • Should plan before acting


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