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2010. First Responder Awareness (FRA). Instructors: Jerry Earley, CIH Gary Duran. Intro to Hazardous Materials. At the. First Responder. Awareness Level. The Haz Mat Problem. Use/misuse of Haz Mats create “Events” Modern standard of living requires Haz Mat use and transport

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First Responder Awareness (FRA)

Instructors: Jerry Earley, CIH

Gary Duran

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Intro to Hazardous Materials

At the

First Responder

Awareness Level

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The Haz Mat Problem

  • Use/misuse of Haz Mats create “Events”

    • Modern standard of living requires Haz Mat use and transport

    • “Events”* will happen

      • *(accidents/emergencies/incidents)

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The Haz Mat Problem

  • Over 16 million chemicals in existence

    • 70,000 potentially classified as “hazardous”

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Elements of Hazmat Problem

  • Volume of hazardous materials

  • The human factor

  • “Events” will happen!

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Three Primary Risks

  • Life/Health

  • Environment

  • Property

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The Haz Mat Problem

  • We can’t eliminate events, but can

    • Mitigate events

    • Prepare for events

    • Effectively & efficiently respond

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Ms. Gump, your boy’s “different”...

The Haz Mat Problem

  • Haz Mat events are “different”…

    • Must respond safely, slowly & methodically

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What is “Hazardous”?

  • No one universal definition for, BUT:

  • UN System helps classify them

    • 9 hazard classes




Misc. Dangerous Substances


Compressed Gases



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Hazard Classes w/Examples







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Explosives (Class 1)

  • Trinitrotoluene (TNT)

  • Black Powder

  • Lead azide

  • ANFO

  • PETN

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Gases (Class 2)

  • Anhydrous Ammonia

  • Hydrogen Sulfide

  • Phosgene

  • Acetylene

  • Diborane

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Flammable/Combustible Liquids (Class 3)

  • Gasoline

  • Alcoholic Beverages

  • Hydrazine

  • Toluene

  • Acetone

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Flammable Solids (Class 4)

  • Aluminum phosphide

  • Naphthalene

  • Sodium

  • Barium

  • Carbon

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Oxidizers & Organic Peroxides (Class 5)

  • Red Fuming Nitric Acid

  • Nitrogen tetroxide

  • Potassium nitrate

  • Calcium Nitrate

  • Fluorine

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Poisonous & Infections Materials (Class 6)

  • Hydrazine

  • Nicotine

  • Acrolein

  • Fluorine

  • Bromine

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Radioactive Materials (Class 7)

  • Uranium Hexafluoride

  • Thorium

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Corrosive Materials (Class 8)

  • Red Fuming Nitric Acid

  • Sodium hydroxide

  • Sulfuric Acid

  • Hydrazine

  • Bromine

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Misc. Hazardous Materials (Class 9)

  • Ammonium nitrate fertilizers

  • Hazardous waste

  • Wheelchairs

  • Automobiles

  • Asbestos

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Multiple Hazards & Health Effects

  • Regulations are performance standards

  • More than one hazard class

  • Markings don’t show all hazards

  • Think of multiple hazards always!

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Haz Mat Commons & Typicals

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Haz Mat Commons

  • Most common:

    • Release:Petroleum products

    • Locations:Fixed facilities

    • Factor:Collision/Overturn

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Haz Mat Typicals

  • The typical:

    • Responder exposure: Inhalation

    • Number of response agencies: Four

    • Response problem: Poor management!

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First Responder’s Role

  • Primary First Responder role

    • Safely and competently respond

    • Within appropriate —

      • level

      • resources

      • and capabilities

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First Responder Awareness

  • OSHA definition

    • Likely to witness/discover a release

    • Can initiate notifying authorities

    • Take no further actions

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Other Levels

  • FRO

  • TECH


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All Levels Have Limits

  • Mission/Assignment

  • Training

  • Equipment

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Know Your…

  • Level

  • Role

  • Responsibility

  • Limits

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Pertinent Laws & Regs

  • Title 8 CCR 5192(q)

    • Safety/Planning/Response/Training

  • VC 2454

    • IC for incidents on Highway/Road

  • VC 2453, H&SC 6.95, SARA III §304

    • Planning & Notifications.

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Hazardous Materials Recognition & Safety

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Hazard Recognition

  • Must Know How to Recognize Haz Mat Incidents

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Importance of Recognition

  • Any responder can encounter hazmats

  • Any responder can get hurt

Percent of responder injured at hazmat incidents.

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Importance of Recognition

  • Recognition leads to safety

  • Safety leads to lives preserved

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Not Always Reported as Hazmats

  • Many reported as:

    • Traffic accident

    • Medical aid

    • Fire, person down, etc.

  • Initial report may not indicate presence of hazardous materials!

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Hazmat Recognition Clues

  • Occupancy/Location

  • Container Shapes

  • Markings & Colors

  • Placards & Labels

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Hazmat Recognition Clues

  • Shipping Papers and MSDS

  • Senses

  • Other Clues

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Occupancy & Location

Foose Foundry

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Hazmat Locations

  • Haz Mats manufactured, stored, used and transported anywhere

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Hazmat Locations

  • Be aware of “Common” locations

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Container Shapes

Gendron Gases

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Containers and Packages

  • Shape may be a clue to the contents

    • Container

    • Package

    • Truck

    • Tank

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Container Shapes

  • DOT specification vehicle

  • Compressed gas cylinders

  • Common above-ground tanks

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DOT Spec Vehicles

  • DOT 406/MC 306

Taimanao Trucking

Taimanao Trucking

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DOT Spec Vehicles

  • DOT 407/MC 307

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DOT Spec Vehicles

  • DOT 412/MC 312

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DOT Spec Vehicles

  • MC 331

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DOT Spec Vehicles

  • MC 331 – Tube Trailer

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DOT Spec Vehicles

  • MC 338

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Gas Cylinders

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Storage Tanks

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Potential Stresses

  • Thermal

  • Mechanical

  • Chemical

  • Radiation

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  • Last resort!

  • Highest danger!

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Other Recognition Clues?

  • Responsible Party

  • Witnesses

  • Business plan

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“Clues” are “Clues”!

  • They are a,

    • Warning

    • Note of caution

    • Indication of things to come

    • But not always all the answers!

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Outward Warning Signs

  • Evidence of leak, fire, smoke, vapors, unusual colors/odors

  • People running from, or collapsed in the area

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Outward Warning Signs

  • Sound of an operating relief valve

  • Remember: Assume Haz Mat & look for clues or warning signs until you confirm the absence of hazardous materials!

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Special Markings

  • NFPA 704

  • Biohazards

  • Military markings

  • Pipeline markers

  • Hazcom markings

  • Railcards

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Placards and Labels

  • Know hazard classes

    • Colors

    • Symbols

    • Placard/label shapes

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Components of Placards


Background and Border


ID Number and Division Number


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Placards and Labels

  • Know placard limits

    • Multiple and subsidiary hazards

    • “Dangerous” placard meaning

      • (Table 1 & 2 commodities)

    • Compliance and enforcement

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Shipping Papers

  • Preferred Haz Mat Identification Source

  • Know types and locations

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Locations of Shipping Papers

  • Truck: Bill of Lading (In cab)

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Locations of Shipping Papers

  • Air: Air Bill (In cockpit)

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Locations of Shipping Papers

  • Rail: Waybill & Consist (With crew)

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Lundgren Shipping

Locations of Shipping Papers

  • Vessel: Dangerous Cargo Manifest (On bridge)

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Shipping Papers

  • Should include info about products

  • But they may not always be accurate or complete

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Make out your will. It’s all over.Death imminent. No hope for you pal!

Bad stuff!

Touch this and you die.

Call 911 now!

Material Safety Data Sheets

  • Should be available for each Haz Mat in the workplace

    • Required by OSHA Hazard Communication Regs

  • Provides valuable information

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First Operational Thought

  • Experienced responders have a positive safety attitude

    • Use recognized safety procedures

    • Develop awareness of possible secondary & tertiary hazards

    • Treat all Haz Mat events with respect & anticipate problems

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First Operational Thought

  • Cross reference 3 or more sources

  • Ensure back-up plans are in place

  • Set up and use decon procedures early

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Mental Safe Approach

  • Maintain a Mental Safe Approach Tactic

    • Always keep your distance

    • Upwind, Upgrade and Upstream!

    • Be a responder, not an indicator

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Ways Hazmats Can Kill

  • Toxicity

  • Radioactivity

  • Asphyxiation

  • Explosion

  • Flammability

  • Corrosion

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Safety, Isolation and Notifications (S.I.N.)

“I have sinned…”

J. Swaggert

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Definition - SIN

  • S = Safety

  • I = Isolation

  • N = Notifications

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Responder Actions

  • All responders should SIN

  • Basic initial action

  • Done at all hazmat incidents

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First Operational Thought

  • The first operational thought for all responder levels is safety!

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First Operational Thought

  • First operational thought is safety

    • Safety starts with first responder on-scene

    • All must have positive safety attitude

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Positive Safety Attitude

  • Three techniques to ensure safety

    • Safe approach

    • Safe assessment

    • Key safety guides for all

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Safe Approach




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Safe Distance

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Safe Approach

  • Position vehicles away from event…

    • For quick departure!

  • Advise responders of safe route of approach.

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Conduct Safe Assessment

  • Conduct safe size-up

  • Or you may have no size-up

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Conduct Safe Assessment

  • Don’t get close enough for positive ID

  • Slow down, shut-off A/C, observe area

  • Position vehicles headed away

  • Use binoculars to identify/assess

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Desired Initial Actions

  • Safe Approach

  • Isolate & deny entry

  • Make initial Notifications

  • Establish temporary command

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General Safety Precautions

  • 10 key Safety Guides/Do’s & Don’ts

    • In the book...

    • Which do need to improve on?

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OSHA Requirements

  • IC must designate a Safety Officer

  • Safety Officer ensures safety on-scene

  • Safety Officer enforces and First Responders observe, safety rules

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First Operational Priority

  • Isolate & deny entry!

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First Operational Priority

  • FRAs — usually isolate and deny entry by establishing a “Perimeter”

    • Use ERG recommendations

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First Operational Priority

  • Dilemma

    • Safe distance vs. control of Perimeter

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Perimeters & Control Zones

  • Purpose of Perimeters & Control Zones

    • Ensure safety and isolation

    • Control the scene

    • Limit spread of contamination

    • Allow for safe working area

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Perimeters & Control Zones

  • Main operational difference

    • FROs usually set Perimeters

    • Techs/Specialists set Zones

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Control Zones

  • Exclusion/Hot Zone

  • Contamination Reduction/Warm Zone

  • Support/Cold Zone

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Exclusion Zone

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Contamination Reduction Zone

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Support Zone

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Control Zones

Contamination Reduction Zone

Exclusion Zone

Support Zone

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First Operational Priority

  • Isolate and deny entry

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Perimeter Control Objectives

  • Control

    • Entry Points

    • Perimeter

    • Access inside perimeter

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Perimeter Control Tactics

  • Determine size/extent of perimeter

    • Per ERG!

    • Downwind perimeter usually longer


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Downwind Perimeter

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Perimeter Control Tactics

  • Identify all entry points

  • Control all entry points

  • Identify and establish boundaries

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Establishing Boundaries

  • Unstaffed barricades usually ineffective

  • Be aware of ignition sources

    • Vehicles

    • Flares

  • Use existing barriers

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Control Access to Perimeter

  • Deny entry to all

  • Stage responders not assigned

  • Establish emergency exit procedures

  • Establish control zones

  • Watch for wind shifts

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Perimeters and Control Zones

  • IC is ultimately responsible

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First Operational Alert

  • Notifications

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Types of Notifications

  • Mandatory notifications

  • Resource requests

  • Report of conditions

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RP Notification Requirements

  • Responsible party must make “Mandatory” notifications

    • To proper authorities

    • Releases with potential adverse impact

      • Health

      • Safety

      • Environment

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Notification Requirements

  • Responder — make same notifications as back-up

  • RP must make “mandatory” notifications

    • Possible civil/criminal penalties for non–notification!

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Notification Requirements

  • “Mandatory” notifications

    • Local 911 — Local dispatch

    • CUPA/Administering Agency — ???

    • State Warning Center — (800) 852-7550

    • National Response Center — (800) 424-8802

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Other Notifications Required

  • Pesticides – County Agriculture

  • Spill in state waters – OES

  • Highways – CHP

  • Radiologicals – DHS

  • Wildlife – DF&G

  • Prop 65 substances – County

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Notifications for Schools

  • Notify District Superintendent

    • Acutely hazardous material release

    • Within ½ mile of a school

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Responsibility for Notifications

  • RP makes mandatory notifications

  • Responders:

    • Releases near schools

    • Prop 65 notification

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Information Needed


  • Location

  • Name of person reporting

  • Substance released




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Information Needed

  • Nature of problem

  • Quantity released

  • Other potential hazards

    • (e.g. fire!)

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Key Notification Points

  • For Federal Agencies

    • National Response Center

    • (800) 424-8802




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Key Notification Points

  • For State Agencies

    • State Warning Center

    • (800) 852-7550




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Notification Issues

  • May need notification checklist

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Rules of Thumb

  • Know local resources & request early

  • Request all response agencies

  • Know Mutual Aid for area Haz Mat teams, local industry, state & federal resources

  • Stage incoming resources

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Accessing Resources

  • Pre-awareness and contact lists

  • Develop 24 hour contact points & notification/contact lists, and

  • Put them in a “User-friendly” format

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Report of Conditions

  • What you see

  • What you need

  • What you are doing

    • (or have done)

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3 Sources—Preferred Minimum



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DOT Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG)

  • ERG purpose:

    • Basic safety tool

    • Basic identification

    • Initial actions

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MSDS as an IDHA Tool

  • Answers key questions

    • What is it?

    • How can I protect my self?

    • What will it do to me?

      • MSDS often provide toxicological info.

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    • Chemical Transportation Emergency Center

  • 24 Hour technical information center

  • One person call (800) 424-9300

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Other Reference Guides

  • Condensed Chemical Dictionary

  • CHRIS Manual

  • NIOSH Pocket Guide

  • Sax Book

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Other Reference Guides

  • Farm Chemical Handbook

  • AAR book

  • NFPA guide

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Other Reference Guides

  • Merck Index

  • Computer databases

  • Pesticide labels

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Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Location

    • (open field vs. downtown)

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Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Time

    • (evening or day or hours next to a school)

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Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Weather

    • (wind, temperature, rain)

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Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Size of problem

    • (5 gallon vs. 500 gallon)

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Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Stage of incident

    • (short vs. long duration release)

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Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Nature of materials

    • Semi Bad Stuff or

    • Bad Stuff or

    • Really Bad Stuff

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Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Type, condition & behavior of container

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Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Responders & equipment

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Variables & Modifying Conditions

  • Availability & amount of control agents

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Predicted Behavior

  • Before intervention

  • Try to predict behavior of release

    • What will it do?

    • Where will it go?

    • What will it hurt?

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Baseline Question

  • Before intervention

    • Outcome of natural stabilization?

    • Favorable impact intervention will make?

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Complications in Hazard Assessment

  • Mixed load placard — “Dangerous”

  • 4-4-4 NFPA 704 marking

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Complications in Hazard Assessment

  • Multiple Haz Mats or “Mixed Bag” problem

    • May need chemist or Haz Mat team to aid in IDHA and action planning

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Intelligence vs. Information

  • “Intelligence” — information that is:

    • Verified

    • Organized

    • Analyzed

    • Prioritized and

    • Useful for valid IDHA

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FRA Role

  • Won’t develop written plans (usually)

  • Should have response objectives

  • Should plan before acting

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