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The Age of Absolutism. Philip II and Elizabeth I. Introduction. European monarchs were becoming powerful kingdoms where everyone had to answer to the king/queen Absolutism: monarch has total control and power Economic, war, domestic and foreign affairs

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the age of absolutism

The Age of Absolutism

Philip II and Elizabeth I

introduction
Introduction
  • European monarchs were becoming powerful
  • kingdoms where everyone had to answer to the king/queen
  • Absolutism: monarch has total control and power
    • Economic, war, domestic and foreign affairs
  • Divine right: belief that monarchs receive their power directly from God - justified by God
  • Goal: Unify diverse people and bring greater efficiency and control
the hapsburgs
The Hapsburgs
  • Hapsburgs: most powerful royal family in Europe
  • After King Charles V abdicated the thrown the lands scattered so:
    • Ferdinand (Charles V brother)
      • Holy Roman Emperor, controlled central Europe (today Germany)
    • Philip II (Charles V son)
      • Controlled Spain, the Netherlands, and overseas empires
spain
Spain
  • Philip II: ruled from 1556-1598
    • Most powerful monarch in Spanish history
    • Saw himself as the leading defender of Catholicism
      • Enemy of all protestant countries
    • Caused many wars trying to spread Hapsburg power
    • 1567: Tried to force Catholicism on the Netherlands
    • Protestant rebellion was supported by England
the end of the spanish hapsburgs
The End of the Spanish Hapsburgs
  • After Philip II, Spanish power declined
  • Economy poorly maintained due to inept leaders
    • Still received a lot of gold from its colonies, but spent more than it received
    • Inflation grew and industry and agriculture declined
    • Kicked out Muslims and Jews—for religious reasons—they were the skilled merchants and artisans
    • Series of corrupt and incompetent leaders
    • Overtaxed its citizens and much of the empire rebelled
  • Charles II was the last of the Spanish Hapsburgs
england
England
  • Tudor dynasty led from 1485-1603
    • Not as absolute: parliament and courts of law (magna carta)
  • Henry VII: first Tudor - took control after War of the Roses
  • Henry VIII: second Tudor to reign – most powerful Tudor ruler
  • Turmoil after Henry VIII died:
    • Edward VI: Young and short reign
    • Mary I: Catholic, “Bloody Mary”
      • Married Philip II of Spain, Burned protestants at the stake, died childless
    • Elizabeth I: queen in 1558
elizabeth i
Elizabeth I
  • Very popular with the English people
  • Her reign was one of England’s highest cultural periods
  • She never married – distrusted other European monarchs and wanted to avoid conflict with nobility
  • During Elizabeth’s reign she set up a hierarchy of social rank in English society
spanish armada
Spanish Armada
  • Reasons Spain attacked England:
    • England support Dutch rebellion
    • England was protestant and saw Elizabeth as illegitimate ruler
    • England supported pirate raids on Spanish ships
  • 1588 Spain sends 130 ships (Spanish Armada) to invade England
spanish armada continued
Spanish Armada Continued
  • Armada got “stuck” in the English channel
  • Spanish crescent formation difficult to defeat
  • English had faster, more maneuverable ships and better cannons
  • English use fire ships to destroy the Spanish formation
  • Severe weather destroyed remainder of fleet during retreat
  • Defeat of Spanish Armada is the beginning of Spain’s decline as a major power
think pair share
Think, Pair, Share
  • Take 5 minutes to write down what kind of ruler Elizabeth was, any thoughts you had about the speech and any part that you found interesting.
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