I the middle east religion and politics ii africa the search for national identities
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I. The Middle East: Religion and Politics II. Africa: The Search for National Identities. I. The Middle East: Religion and Politics A. Decolonization Egypt Gamal Abdel Nasser overthrows King Faruq > Republic, 1953 control of Suez.

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I the middle east religion and politics ii africa the search for national identities

I. The Middle East: Religion and Politics

II. Africa: The Search for National Identities


I the middle east religion and politics ii africa the search for national identities

  • I. The Middle East: Religion and PoliticsA. DecolonizationEgypt

  • Gamal Abdel Nasser

  • overthrows King Faruq

  • > Republic, 1953

  • control of Suez


I the middle east religion and politics ii africa the search for national identities

  • I. The Middle East: Religion and PoliticsB. The Arab-Israeli Conflict

  • Arab League

  • rejects partition

  • May 1948, Israel

  • David Ben Gurion1967, Nasser

  • threatens war

  • defeated by Israel

  • 1964, Palestinian Liberation Organization

  • 1967, UN Resolution 242

  • Soviet Union aids Arab states

  • U.S. aids Israel and Arab states

  • Yom Kippur War, 1973

  • Soviets and U.S. square off

  • 1974, Egyptian-Israeli agreement


I the middle east religion and politics ii africa the search for national identities

  • The Middle East: Religion and Politics

  • C. The Politics of Oil

  • 1933, Ibn Sa’ud

  • concession to Standard Oil

  • > ARAMCO

  • OPEC

  • Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela

  • Embargo, 1973

  • D. Egyptian-Israeli Détente

  • 1977, Anwar Sadat

  • peace talks with Israel

  • Camp David, 1978

  • President Carter

  • Menachim Begin

  • Anwar Sadat

  • Sinai returned to Egypt

  • > Egypt expelled from Arab League


I the middle east religion and politics ii africa the search for national identities

  • I. The Middle East: Religion and Politics

  • E. The Evolution of Turkey

  • Atatürk

  • Secularization1946, multiparty elections

  • 1990s

  • Tansu Ciller, first female premier

  • Necmettin Erbakan, first Islamist

  • Refah party

  • Islamic reform

  • outlawed, 1998

  • Islamist Justice and Development Party

  • moderate

  • 2002, two-thirds majority

  • Recep Erdogan premier


I the middle east religion and politics ii africa the search for national identities

  • I. The Middle East: Religion and Politics

  • F. The Iranian Revolution

  • U.S. v. Soviets

  • Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

  • Iranian Communist party (Tudeh)

  • Mohammad Mosaddeq, Prime Minister

  • 1978, student demonstrations

  • > 1979, Shah flees

  • Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

  • Western trends reversed

  • Sharia reimposed

  • Iran-Iraq war

  • 1980, Hussein attacks Iran

  • 1989, armistice

  • 1997, Mohammad Khatami

  • (re-elected, 2001)

  • 1995, Mahmoud Almadinejad


I the middle east religion and politics ii africa the search for national identities

  • (G. Toward a New Balance)

  • Iraq

  • Saddam Hussein

  • 1990, Kuwait attacked

  • UN response

  • Coalition

  • Jordan, PLO aid Iraq

  • 1991, Iraq bombed

  • 2003, overthrown

  • factional divisions

  • anti-U.S. insurgencyH. Islamist Factions

  • Hamas

  • rejects Israel

  • Al-Qaeda

  • Osama Bin Laden

  • I. The Middle East: Religion and Politics

  • G. Toward a New Balance

  • Egypt

  • Anwar Sadat

  • Muslim Brotherhood

  • Hosni Mubarak

  • Arab-Israeli Conflict

  • Intifada

  • 1993, Arafat and Yitzhak Rabin

  • Oslo Peace AccordPalestinian Authority1994, Jordan and Palestine

  • 1995, Rabin assassinated2001, Ariel Sharon

  • World Trade Center attacked


I the middle east religion and politics ii africa the search for national identities

  • II. Africa: The Search for National Identities

  • A. Trends

  • 1950s, 1960s, independence for many

  • Organization of African Unity, 1963

  • 1980s, second wave of independence

  • Capitalism v. communism, socialism

  • Neocolonialism

  • ties remain with colonizers

  • IMF

  • Structural Adjustment Programs

  • market model

  • AIDS


I the middle east religion and politics ii africa the search for national identities

  • II. Africa: The Search for National Identities

  • B. North Africa

  • Tunisia, Morocco

  • 1956, independence

  • Algeria

  • Front for National Liberation (FLN)

  • Islamic Salvation Front (FIS)2004 Elections

  • Abelazic Bouteflika

  • Libya

  • Muammar al-Qadhaffi

  • 1969, overthrows monarchy

  • inspired by Nasser

  • Jamahiriya

  • socialism + Islam

  • 1977, “Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya”

  • Lockerbie bombing


I the middle east religion and politics ii africa the search for national identities

  • (C. Middle Africa)

  • Democratic Republic of Congo

  • 1960, independence

  • Joseph Mobutu Sese Sekocoup, 1965

  • > Zaïre

  • Laurent Kabila

  • uprising, 1997

  • 2000, assassinated

  • 2006, Joseph Kabila

  • II. Africa: The Search for National Identities

  • C. Middle Africa

  • Ghana

  • 1957, Kwame Nkrumah

  • prime minister

  • > dictator

  • 1966, coup

  • > military rule

  • 1969, elections restored

  • 2000, John Kufuor

  • Nigeria

  • 1960, independence

  • 1966, military coup

  • 1967, Republic of Biafra

  • secession

  • Olesegun Obasanjo

  • elected 1993, 2003


I the middle east religion and politics ii africa the search for national identities

  • (D. Northeastern Africa)

  • Sudan

  • Darfur

  • Janjaweed

  • II. Africa: The Search for National Identities

  • D. Northeastern Africa

  • Ethiopia

  • Haile Selassie

  • 1973, famine

  • > military coup, 1974

  • Mengistu Haile Meriam

  • > socialism

  • Dergue, council1991, Tigreansconflict with Eritrea

  • Somalia

  • Siad Barré, from Maréhan clan

  • 1991, civil war

  • > famine

  • UN forces

  • Rwanda

  • Hutus v. Tutsis

  • 1974, Juvenal Habyarimana

  • Hutu

  • 1990, Tutsi rebels from Uganda

  • > civil war

  • Hutu massacre of Tutsis, 1994

  • Paul KagameTutsi


I the middle east religion and politics ii africa the search for national identities

  • II. Africa: The Search for National Identities

  • E. Southern Africa

  • 1974, Portuguese coup

  • > independence for colonies

  • Angola, Mozambique, Guinea-Bissau

  • Angola

  • National Union for the Total Independence of Angola

  • (UNITA)

  • aided by U.S.

  • Movement for the Popular Liberation of Angola (MPLA)

  • aided by Soviet Union and Cuba

  • Jonas Savimbi

  • 2002, killed


I the middle east religion and politics ii africa the search for national identities

  • II. Africa: The Search for National Identities

  • (E. Southern Africa)

  • Zimbabwe

  • 1960s, rebellion against white rule

  • Joshua Nkomo, Robert Mugabe

  • boycott 1978 elections

  • > new elections, 1980

  • Mugabe president

  • South Africa

  • 1948, apartheid

  • Population Registration Act

  • Group Areas Act

  • based on Bantustans

  • Protest

  • 1956, women’s march, Pretoria

  • 1976, student protests

  • 1989, F. W. de Klerk

  • legalizes banned parties

  • frees Nelson Mandela

  • 1994, free elections

  • Mandela elected president

  • 1999, 2004

  • Thabo Mbeki president


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