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Africa and the Middle East. I. African Nationalism grew after WWII. Page 672- Map Pan African Movement- which promoted cultural unity of people of African Heritage Due to their participation in WWII, Africans were no longer satisfied to remain under European control. II. Independence.

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i african nationalism grew after wwii
I. African Nationalism grew after WWII
  • Page 672- Map
  • Pan African Movement- which promoted cultural unity of people of African Heritage
  • Due to their participation in WWII, Africans were no longer satisfied to remain under European control
ii independence
II. Independence
  • Ghana- civil disobedience led by Nkrumah
  • Kenya- Mau Mau uprising
  • Zimbabwe- Creation of new state, Guerrilla Warfare
  • Guinea- Refuse French Aid, turn to Soviets
  • Belgian Congo (Zaire) Violent protests, Military state under Mobutu
  • South Africa- Apartheid-segregation caused protests at home and abroad
iii africa since independence
III. Africa Since Independence
  • Economic Problems
    • A single crop or resource leads to economic instability
    • Price drops and your whole economy fails. Ex. Ghana and cocoa
    • Results are debt and rising prices of goods
  • Political Problems
    • New countries lack leadership which often results in military takeoverand dictatorships. Ex. Ghana and Nkrumah
    • Cold War Battleground. Ex. Ethiopia and Somalia
  • Environmental and Social Problems
    • Population Growth
    • Desertification
    • Disease—HIV/AIDS, Ebola Virus
iv nationalism in the middle east and north africa
IV. Nationalism in the Middle East and North Africa
  • Britain and France controlled much of the Middle East after WWII
  • Britain had troops and control in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Iran and Palestine.
v britain and palestine
V. Britain and Palestine
  • Turn the problem of a Jewish state over to the UN
  • UN agreed to divide Palestine into two states—one Arab and one Jewish
  • In 1948, Israel declared its Independence as a Jewish State
  • As soon as Britain withdrew, Arabs attacked Israel and Israel won.
vi britain and egypt
VI. Britain and Egypt
  • Gamal Nasser took over in Egypt
  • Nasser announces a deal with Czech (Soviet Union)
  • This upsets US and Britain and they agree to help finance the Aswan High Dam
  • Nasser then agrees to the US/British Aid, but it is revoked
  • Nasser then nationalizes the Suez Canal and uses money from that to pay for the Dam Project
  • Britain and France conspire with Israel to overthrow Nasser
  • The attempt is unsuccessful and Nasser becomes extremely popular in the Arab world for his defeat of European Imperialism
vii britain and iran
VII. Britain and Iran
  • In 1951, Mohammad Mosaddeq became Iran’s Prime Minister.
  • He moved to nationalize the oil industry.
  • Britain was outraged and organized a boycott of Iranian oil.
  • The US was worried that Iran would side with the Soviets
  • In 1953 the CIA organized a coup and overthrew Mosaddeq and placed the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in charge
viii oil in persian gulf and north africa
VIII. Oil in Persian Gulf and North Africa
  • Oil Producing countries learned through the Iran boycott that individually oil producers had little power
  • As a group, they could control the price of oil—OPEC was formed (organization of petroleum exporting countries)
  • OPEC had power and they used it to cut off shipments to the US as punishment for supporting Israel. Oil prices rose from $3 to $12 per barrel
ix iran
IX. Iran
  • Due to The Shah’s close ties with the West, many opposed him
  • Many who opposed him were Muslim and Conservative Islamic leaders led by the Ayatollah Khomeini opposed the Shah’s modernization efforts
  • Unable to contain the unrest, the Shah left Iran and the Ayatollah kept power until his death in 1989
x iraq
X. Iraq
  • Saddam Hussein helped the Ba’ath party seize power in Iraq in 1968
  • Saddam removed anyone who threatened him as a leader
  • When the Kurds-a minority group- asked for self government, he attempted genocide using chemical weapons
xi desert storm
XI. Desert Storm
  • In 1990, Saddam invaded Kuwait claiming they were pumping Iraqi oil
  • Iraq’s army took Kuwait and threatened Saudi Arabia
  • World opinion turned on Saddam and a coalition force called Desert Shield was sent to Saudi Arabia to be ready if Saddam did not withdraw by the set deadline
  • When the deadline passed, Desert Shield turned to Desert Storm and Iraqi forces were forced out of Kuwait
  • Saddam stayed in power but refused UN weapons inspectors
  • As a result, the US invaded Iraq in 2003 and Saddam was caught, tried and hung
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