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Africa and the Middle East. I. African Nationalism grew after WWII. Page 672- Map Pan African Movement- which promoted cultural unity of people of African Heritage Due to their participation in WWII, Africans were no longer satisfied to remain under European control. II. Independence.

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Africa and the Middle East

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Africa and the middle east

Africa and the Middle East


I african nationalism grew after wwii

I. African Nationalism grew after WWII

  • Page 672- Map

  • Pan African Movement- which promoted cultural unity of people of African Heritage

  • Due to their participation in WWII, Africans were no longer satisfied to remain under European control


Ii independence

II. Independence

  • Ghana- civil disobedience led by Nkrumah

  • Kenya- Mau Mau uprising

  • Zimbabwe- Creation of new state, Guerrilla Warfare

  • Guinea- Refuse French Aid, turn to Soviets

  • Belgian Congo (Zaire) Violent protests, Military state under Mobutu

  • South Africa- Apartheid-segregation caused protests at home and abroad


Iii africa since independence

III. Africa Since Independence

  • Economic Problems

    • A single crop or resource leads to economic instability

    • Price drops and your whole economy fails. Ex. Ghana and cocoa

    • Results are debt and rising prices of goods

  • Political Problems

    • New countries lack leadership which often results in military takeoverand dictatorships. Ex. Ghana and Nkrumah

    • Cold War Battleground. Ex. Ethiopia and Somalia

  • Environmental and Social Problems

    • Population Growth

    • Desertification

    • Disease—HIV/AIDS, Ebola Virus


Iv nationalism in the middle east and north africa

IV. Nationalism in the Middle East and North Africa

  • Britain and France controlled much of the Middle East after WWII

  • Britain had troops and control in Egypt, Syria, Iraq, Iran and Palestine.


V britain and palestine

V. Britain and Palestine

  • Turn the problem of a Jewish state over to the UN

  • UN agreed to divide Palestine into two states—one Arab and one Jewish

  • In 1948, Israel declared its Independence as a Jewish State

  • As soon as Britain withdrew, Arabs attacked Israel and Israel won.


Israel and the plo

Israel and the PLO


Vi britain and egypt

VI. Britain and Egypt

  • Gamal Nasser took over in Egypt

  • Nasser announces a deal with Czech (Soviet Union)

  • This upsets US and Britain and they agree to help finance the Aswan High Dam

  • Nasser then agrees to the US/British Aid, but it is revoked

  • Nasser then nationalizes the Suez Canal and uses money from that to pay for the Dam Project

  • Britain and France conspire with Israel to overthrow Nasser

  • The attempt is unsuccessful and Nasser becomes extremely popular in the Arab world for his defeat of European Imperialism


Vii britain and iran

VII. Britain and Iran

  • In 1951, Mohammad Mosaddeq became Iran’s Prime Minister.

  • He moved to nationalize the oil industry.

  • Britain was outraged and organized a boycott of Iranian oil.

  • The US was worried that Iran would side with the Soviets

  • In 1953 the CIA organized a coup and overthrew Mosaddeq and placed the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in charge


Viii oil in persian gulf and north africa

VIII. Oil in Persian Gulf and North Africa

  • Oil Producing countries learned through the Iran boycott that individually oil producers had little power

  • As a group, they could control the price of oil—OPEC was formed (organization of petroleum exporting countries)

  • OPEC had power and they used it to cut off shipments to the US as punishment for supporting Israel. Oil prices rose from $3 to $12 per barrel


Ix iran

IX. Iran

  • Due to The Shah’s close ties with the West, many opposed him

  • Many who opposed him were Muslim and Conservative Islamic leaders led by the Ayatollah Khomeini opposed the Shah’s modernization efforts

  • Unable to contain the unrest, the Shah left Iran and the Ayatollah kept power until his death in 1989


X iraq

X. Iraq

  • Saddam Hussein helped the Ba’ath party seize power in Iraq in 1968

  • Saddam removed anyone who threatened him as a leader

  • When the Kurds-a minority group- asked for self government, he attempted genocide using chemical weapons


Xi desert storm

XI. Desert Storm

  • In 1990, Saddam invaded Kuwait claiming they were pumping Iraqi oil

  • Iraq’s army took Kuwait and threatened Saudi Arabia

  • World opinion turned on Saddam and a coalition force called Desert Shield was sent to Saudi Arabia to be ready if Saddam did not withdraw by the set deadline

  • When the deadline passed, Desert Shield turned to Desert Storm and Iraqi forces were forced out of Kuwait

  • Saddam stayed in power but refused UN weapons inspectors

  • As a result, the US invaded Iraq in 2003 and Saddam was caught, tried and hung


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