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Science FCAT Review. Produced by LAJH Science Teachers. Vocabulary Associated with Living vs Nonliving. Nonliving Abiotic ____________ Never was alive __________ Never will be alive ______________ Rocks. Living _________ Organic _____________ Is alive ___________ made of cells

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Science fcat review

Science FCAT Review

Produced by LAJH Science Teachers


Vocabulary associated with living vs nonliving

Vocabulary Associated withLiving vs Nonliving

Nonliving

Abiotic

____________

Never was alive

__________

Never will be alive

______________

Rocks

Living

_________

Organic

_____________

Is alive

___________

made of cells

plants

Biotic

Inorganic

Was alive (dead)

Isn'talive

Will be alive

Not made of cells


Characteristics of life

Characteristics of Life

Living things (organisms)

________________

___________

Use __________

_________ to their environment

____________

Cells

Systems

Living things need

An _______ source

_____

__________

The right environment

Right amount of space

***Not all living things need oxygen, etc***

Grow and Develop

Energy

Reproduce

Water

Energy

Place to live

Respond

Organized

Green Rhinos Eat Rotten Oranges Causing Sickness


Characteristics of life essential question

Characteristics of Life: Essential Question

While walking the beach you discover a jelly-like substance, what several characteristics would you look for to determine whether or not it is an organism?

Answer: You should look for evidence of Organization: Is the object made of a cell or multiple cells? Look for clues that it can Respond: Is the object equipped to respond to changes in their environment? Does the object use Energy? Does it appear to have a way to consume food or produce its own food by photosynthesis? Can the object Grow and Develop? Does the object have a means of Reproduction?


How do humans compare

How do humans compare

Grow & Develop

Reproduce

Use _________

Respond to their environment

__________

Cells

Systems

Fertilized egg, baby, toddler, teen, adult

Sexually reproduce to make babies (offspring)

Heterotroph- eat things

Sweat when hot…etc

Multicellular - specialized Cells make tissues which make organs which work together in systems to make the organism survive.

Energy

Organized

Green Rhinos Eat Rotten Oranges Causing Sickness


Abiotic factors

Abiotic Factors

Biotic means “living.”

In the word abiotic the prefix a means “not”

Thus, the vocabulary word abiotic means

“non living.”


Life lines abiotic factors

Life Lines: Abiotic Factors

Air

The gases Nitrogen and Oxygen make up the vast majority of our atmosphere and provide the substances needed to sustain life.

Water

Major component of cells within all organisms.

Soil

Soil supports plant growth.

Sunlight

Light energy supports almost all life on earth


Life lines abiotic factors continued

Life Lines: Abiotic Factors(continued)

Temperature

Many organisms require 0 – 50 degrees Celsius to maintain healthy body temperatures.

Latitudes further from the equator (central location on the planet) tend to have colder temps than the latitudes closest to the equator.

Climate

Refers to an areas average weather conditions over time, including temperature, precipitation, and wind.


Essential question

Essential Question

  • A sunflower requires a significant amount of sunlight, water, and soil to grow. If a large number of sunflower seeds are planted around a large tree, all of the seedlings will not grow to the same size plant. Explain why plants farthest from the tree branches will be taller, greener, and healthier than the plants closer to the tree?

  • Answer: The sunflowers farthest away from the tree are able to absorb enough sunlight to carry out photosynthesis. This allows them to make and store glucose in the photosynthesis process. The sunflowers can then break down the glucose during cellularrespiration to get energy to make new cells for growth and maintenance. Those sunflowers growing closest to the tree are in the shade and are therefore limited in their ability to carry out photosynthesis and respiration that may cause these plants to die.


Essential question1

Essential Question

  • In the summer of 2005, the St. Johns River experienced an algal bloom. Describe the abiotic factors that caused the bloom and its effects on the abiotic and biotic factors in the river. ER

  • Answer: Abiotic factors involved in the bloom include increased water and air temperature (higher than normal temperatures), increased sunlight (summer), and increased available nutrients, particularly nitrogen, from fertilizer runoff. The bloom resulted in less available sunlight (algae blocked sunlight from water below), less available oxygen in the water (bacteria decomposers use up the oxygen and warm water does not hold as much oxygen), and toxins released into the air and water (abiotic factors) by the algae organisms. This resulted in stress, illness, and death to multiple freshwater and saltwater organisms in the river and those preying on those organisms. A complete answer will need to include two triggering abiotic factors (fertilizer is required) and at least on abiotic effect and one biotic effect.


The cycle s of nature

The Cycle’s of Nature

The Water Cycle

The Nitrogen Cycle

The Carbon Cycle


The water cycle

The Water Cycle

Groundwater

Evaporation

When liquid water turns to a gas an enters the atmosphere.

Transpiration

Water vapor enters the atmosphere from plant leaves, also from animals during exhalation and excretion.

Condensation

The process in which water vapor (gas) turns back into a liquid. This process involves molecules collecting on particulate matter and clumping together to form clouds!!

Precipitation

The change of temperature due to increased altitude will cause particulate matter to become dense and drop moisture in the form of snow, sleet, hail, rain.


Essential question2

Essential Question

  • Explain the role of the soybean in the nitrogen, water, and carbon cycles. ER

  • Answer: Soybeans function in the nitrogen cycle by harboring nitrogen-fixing bacteria that make nitrogen in the atmosphere available in the soil to the individual soybean plant as well as nearby plants. Soybean plants function in the water cycle when they draw water from the soil into their root systems and release it into the atmosphere during respiration and transpiration. Soybean plants function in the carbon cycle by taking in carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and releasing oxygen during photosynthesis.


Energy transfer in a community

Energy transfer in a community

Light energy is converted into usable chemical energy within producers (plants) those plants are eaten by consumers, the energy transfer gets smaller (10% of available energy value)as one consumer is eaten by another.

Successful energy transfer within an ecosystem typically occurs between 3-5 organisms, further predation results in insufficient energy

consumption. Which results in more consumption to fill energy void.


Energy pyramids

Energy Pyramids

As you move through the pyramid from bottom to top, you can notice that the energy transfer becomes less efficient.


Essential question3

Essential Question

  • Use your knowledge of food chains and the energy pyramid to explain why the number of mice in a grassland ecosystem is greater than the number of hawks.

  • Answer: Hawks eat mice. To support the hawk population, there must be far more energy at the mouse level than at the hawk level. Since mice are much smaller than hawks, there must be many more mice than hawks.


Resources

Resources

Resources

  • Natural resources

    • All living things depend on natural resources to survive

    • Some resources are renewable, while others like petroleum are not.

    • Renewable Natural resources include:

      • sunlight, water, air, and crops.

    • Nonrenewable Resources include:

      • Minerals, Metals, and Petroleum

  • Natural resources

    • All living things depend on natural resources to survive

    • Some resources are renewable, while others like petroleum are not.

    • Renewable Natural resources include:

      • sunlight, water, air, and crops.

    • Nonrenewable Resources include:

      • Minerals, Metals, and Petroleum


Abiotic factors in the environment include

Abiotic Factors in the environment include:

Air

Water

Soil

Sunlight

Temperature

Climate

Let's Review!


Types of pollution

Types of Pollution

Air Pollution – vehicles, volcanoes, forest fires and wind blown dust & sand

Acid rain precipitation- this type of rain washes nutrients from the soil which harms plants

Indoor air pollution- pollutants such as pet dander and mold can build up inside of buildings

Water Pollution- agriculture run off of fertilizers the number one killer of aquatic ecosystems (I.e. Manure, Fertilizer, Pesticides)

Soil Pollution-acid rain, household product like laundry detergents, pesticides, hundreds of thousands of other culprits

Soil Loss –wind and rain and other natural phenomena contribute to soil erosion.


Pollution accelerating global warming

Pollution accelerating global warming


Essential question4

Essential Question

  • How might humans contribute to the greenhouse effect by cutting down a large percentage of the Earth’s forests?

  • Answer: Trees take in carbon dioxide during photosynthesis and release oxygen into the atmosphere. The greenhouse effect is the result of increased levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Cutting large amounts of trees would result in fewer trees to take carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere while not decreasing the amount of carbon dioxide going into the air. This would result in an overall increase in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere thus making the greenhouse effect worse. Additional information about global warming may be included.


The 3 r s of conservation

The 3 R’s of Conservation

  • Reduce-

    • Reduce your use of natural resources. Car pooling or using public transportation will reduce your personal use of petroleum. Opting to bring cloth bags to the super market instead of using plastic or paper bags.

    • What are some other ways we can reduce our consumption of natural resources?


The 3 r s of conservation1

The 3 R’s of Conservation

  • Reuse

    • Another way to help conserve natural resource is to reuse items from previous purchases.

    • Reusing means to use over without changing or reprocessing the item.

    • Donating clothes to charity is a great way to help other reuse clothes that you have outgrown.


The 3 r s of conservation2

The 3 R’s of Conservation

  • Recycle

    • This requires the changing or reprocessing of item or a natural resource.

    • Recyclable materials include:

      • Plastic

      • Metals

      • Glass

      • Paper

      • Compost


Interactions of life

Interactions of Life


Ecosystems

Ecosystems

Also called abioticfactors

Also called bioticfactors


Levels in an ecosystem

Levels in an Ecosystem

1._________

Habitat

Forest

2.___________

Community

Deer + rabbits

Pine trees + bears

3. ____________

Population

Herd of deer

Organism

A deer

4. _____________


Essential question5

Essential Question

Write about your own life using the terms habitat, community, populations, and ecosystem to describe your environment.


Levels in an ecosystem1

Levels in an Ecosystem

1. Habitat-

LAJH

2.Community

7th and 8th graders, teachers, custodians, administrators

3.Population

8th graders

4. Organism

You


Feeding relationships

Feeding relationships

Tertiary consumer

________________

Eats the secondary consumer

___________________

Eats the primary consumer

Secondary consumer

________________

Eats the plants or algae

Primary consumer

Producer

_________________

Make their own food

Through energy from the sun

Plants, algae, phytoplankton


Types of consumers

Types of Consumers

Wolf

Egret (bird)

Cow

Deer

Florida

Black bear

Eats both plants

and meat

Bacteria, Fungi

Earthworms

Breaks down

Dead material


Food webs

Food Webs

SC= secondary consumer

TC= tertiary consumer

P= producer

PC= primary consumer

TC

TC

SC

PC

PC

PC

P

P

P


Food webs1

Food Webs

  • Arrows show the direction energy flows

  • Any change in one organism’s population will result in a change to all other organisms populations.


How populations change

How populations change


Essential question6

Essential Question

Kudzu is a non-native, invasive plant species. Explain how introducing it to the Florida ecosystem has affected the populations of native species.


Answer

Answer

Populations may change their food

source

Populations may leave an area to find food which could cause over crowding in another area

Consumer populations may decrease as food source becomes limited

Kudzu covers the native plants so

they cannot get sunlight to

make food

http://www.world-builders.org/lessons/less/biomes/deciduous/decweb.html


Symbiosis

Symbiosis


Essential question7

Essential Question

Describe a symbiotic relationship between two organisms. Identify the relationship as one of the following: mutualism, commensalism or parasitism and how the relationship affects each organism.


Examples of symbiotic relationships

Examples of Symbiotic Relationships

  • A humming bird drinking pollen, as the hummingbird flies from flower to flower the pollen from one flower is deposited to another flower.

    • _________________________________________

  • The fleas on a dog are provided with a home and food (blood), while the dog’s skin is irritated, inflamed and made itchy by the flea bite.

    • _________________________________________

Mutualism

Parasitism


Examples of symbiotic relationships1

Examples of Symbiotic Relationships

  • The Cattle Egret looks for food in pastures and fields among cattle and horses.It feeds on the insects stirred up by the movement of the grazing animals. The egrets benefit by having an easier time getting food, but for the cows and horses there is no benefit.

    • ______________________________________

  • Humans give carbon dioxide to the plants while the plants gives oxygen to the humans and animals.

    • ______________________________________

Commensalism

Mutualism


Photosynthesis vs respiration

Photosynthesis

Occurs only in organisms that contain chlorophyll (Plants and some protists)

The process of using sunlight and carbon dioxide to create sugar

Happens in the chloroplasts of plants.

Respiration

Occurs in all living cells, inside the Mitochondrion

The process of breaking down sugar to produce energy

Requires oxygen for the process to take place

Also produces water and carbon dioxide in the process

Photosynthesis vs. Respiration


Science fcat review

Why is it important for cells to reproduce?

Cells need to reproduce for three reasons

Growth

Repair damaged cells

Replace dying cells

The Cell Cycle is the process cells use to reproduce.

The Cell Cycle


Science fcat review

Parts of the Cell Cycle

  • Interphase: when the cell doubles in size and DNA is duplicated.

    • Why?

  • Mitosis: when two new nuclei are formed inside the cell

    • Why?

  • Cytokinesis: When the cell’s cytoplasm splits and two new cells are formed.

    • Why?

    • What happens next?


Science fcat review

Animation

Movie


Science fcat review

Mitosis is the division of a cell’s nucleus. However, sometimes scientists refer to the entire cell cycle as mitosis.

Some cells do not go through mitosis, or only go through it on rare occasions. Example, red blood cells and neurons

Some cells, such as skin cells go through the cell cycle your entire life.

Things to Remember about the Cell Cycle


Essential question8

Essential Question

Mitosis is the process by which we grow, repair our body, and replace dead cells. During periods of rapid growth (childhood and puberty) the cell cycle goes quickly. When we injure our bodies, our cells are damaged. The cells must be replaced by new cells. Although some cells, such as neurons can last many many years, most cells die much sooner and must be constantly replaced.

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

Describe several ways that mitosis is an important and beneficial life process in humans and other organisms.


What s the connection

What’s the connection?

  • What did we start out with in the cell cycle?

  • What did we end up with?

  • This means the cell cycle is a type of ______________________.

ONE CELL

TWO CELLS

Asexual Reproduction


Asexual reproduction

Asexual Reproduction

1

Budding

Cuttings

Binary Fission

Only takes _______ parent

The offspring has identical DNA as the parent

Other Examples:

_________ (like a hydra)

_________ (like plants)

_____________(bacteria and protists)


Asexual reproduction1

Advantages

Don’t have to “go find a mate” (good for organisms that can’t or don’t move much

Can produce lots of offspring quickly

Great for areas of the world with very little change. (example, bacteria in the dead sea)

Disadvantages

Creates no offspring that are “different”

Species cannot adapt to its environment

Easy to overpopulate

Asexual Reproduction


What sounds like mitosis and confuses everyone

What sounds like Mitosis and Confuses everyone?

Meiosis

To first understand meiosis, you must understand sexual reproduction


Science fcat review

Creating an organism by using two parents. Each contributes ½ of the DNA.

___________: a sex cell that contains ½ of the organisms DNA

Female gamete: _____________

____________ is the process used to make gametes.

Meiosis takes 1 cell and creates ____ gametes.

Sexual Reproduction

Gamete

egg

Meiosis

4


Science fcat review

Cells with a full copy of DNA are called ___________ cells.

In humans, 46 chromosomes

Gametes with ½ copy of DNA are called ___________ cells.

In humans, 23 chromosomes

When egg and sperm meet it is called ____________.

The two haploid cells create one diploid cell called a ____________.

Zygote goes through ____________creating more and more cells for the baby organism.

diploid

haploid

fertilization

zygote

the cell cycle


Meiosis

Meiosis

Animation


Essential question9

Essential Question

Meiosis must successfully create a haploid cell so it can combine with another haploid cell to create another complete organism. In humans, this is sperm and egg making a baby. In plants, this is pollen and ovum making a seed.

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

Explain why it is important for meiosis to produce a haploid cell in order for sexual reproduction to occur.


Mitosis meiosis review

Mitosis/Meiosis Review

Mitosis

Used for growth, repairs, and replacements

Starts with one cell with 1 full copy of DNA

Creates 2 cells each with a full copy of DNA

Is a ___________!

Occurs all over the body of an organism

Meiosis

Used for __________________

Starts with one cell with 1 full copy of DNA

Creates 4 cells each with ½ a copy of DNA

These cells are called gametes

Is not a cycle

Occurs only in ___________________

sexual reproduction

cycle

sex organs


Essential question10

Essential Question

  • Explain how sexual reproduction is an important process in evolution and the natural selection for the survival of the organism.

  • Answer: Sexual reproduction allows for the offspring to inherit different combinations of genes than that of the parents. Natural selection means that organisms born with traits best-suited to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce, thereby passing on those helpful traits to future generations.


Adaptation

Adaptation

Any variation that makes an organism better suited for its environment.

Example: camels…

What are some adaptations camels have?

Class Discussion: Explain how meiosis, sexual reproduction, and evolution have helped the camel adapt to its environment for survival.


Time to review

Time to Review….

It’s Really Small!

It’s the Basic Unit of Life

It’s the……

The Cell!


The cell the most basic unit of life

The Cell:The most basic unit of life.

___________

___________

Prokaryote

Eukaryote

NO Nucleus

DNA floats freely

Only Bacteria

Nucleus neatly holds DNA

Like a grocery bag holds groceries


Bacterium cell

Bacterium Cell

genetic material

cytoplasm

ribosomes

cell membrane

flagellum

cell wall


Animal vs plant cells

Animal vs Plant Cells

Plant Cell

Animal Cell

Both have a nucleus; Both are Eukaryotes

Plants cells have extra parts- cell walls and Chloroplasts


Animal vs plant cells1

Animal vs Plant Cells

Animal Cell

Plant Cell

Cell Wall

(Protection)

Chloroplast

Large Vacuole to store water

Cell Membrane

________________

_________________

Cytoplasm

*Nucleus

No Cell Wall

No Chloroplast

Mitochondria

*Both have a nucleus; Both are Eukaryotes


Parts of the cell

Parts of the cell

______________: Rigid structure that protects the cells of plants, fungi, and some bacteria. Makes the plant “crunchy”

______________: Jelly’s “Sack” that holds everything. Has tiny holes that allows nutrients in and wastes out. Helps maintain homeostasis

______________: Cell’s jelly

______________: Makes energy for the cell

______________: Does photosynthesis

______________:(usually only one large one in plant cells) contains water and can store food.

______________: Controls the cells, stores the hereditary material

Cell Wall

Cell Membrane

Cytoplasm

Mitochondria

Chloroplast

Vacuole

Nucleus


Some good cell words

Some good cell words

_____________

A healthy balance: a regulation of an organism’s internal, life-maintaining conditions

_____________

When items move in and out of a cell from high concentrations to low concentrations

Osmosis is the diffusion of water only

_____________

When concentrations outside and inside the cell are the same

______________________

Moving items in and out of a cell (like nutrients, proteins)

Active requires the cell’s energy

Passive requires no energy

Homeostasis

Diffusion

Equilibrium

Active/Passive Transport


From cell to organism

FROM CELL TO ORGANISM

Tissue

Group of cells working together

Organ

Different tissues working together

Organism

Any livingthing made of 1 or more cells


Science fcat review

Organelle:

_________________________

Can you give an example of each of the following?

Mitochondria

Cell:

______________________

Red Blood Cell

Tissue:

____________________

Cardiac Tissue

Organ:

___________________

Heart

Organ System:

__________________

Cardiovascular System

Organism:

_________________

Mrs. Richardson


Essential question11

Essential Question

Cells are designed for their function (job). Muscle cells must stretch and contract. Red blood cells carry oxygen and carbon dioxide. White blood cells attack germs. Nerve cells send messages.

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

Study the following slide. Explain in detail why each cell looks different.


Structure of cells and function of cells

Structure of Cells and Function of Cells

1.

3. White blood Cell

2. Red blood Cell

4. Nerve Cell


Classification 2 thoughts

Classification: 2 Thoughts

Phylogeny

Taxonomy

The good news, phylogeny and taxonomy usually classify organisms in the same groups…. Why?

Organisms that share the same characteristics most likely share a similar evolutionary path.

___________________

  • Organisms are classified by their evolutionary history.

___________________

  • Organisms are classified by their characteristics


Domains the highest level of classification

Domains: The Highest Level of Classification


Levels of classification

Levels of Classification

Kingdom

Phylum

_________

Order

Family

_________

Species

Older textbooks do not mention domains, and sometimes neither do scientists. They start with “Kingdom” as the highest level of classification.

Broad/ general similarities

Class

Genus

Specific similarities

Can only mate with each other and create fertile offspring


Characteristics of each kingdom

Characteristics of Each Kingdom

As we review each kingdom, complete this chart.


Archaebacteria

Archaebacteria

Prokaryotes

Both heterotroph and autotroph

Unicellular

Lives in extreme environments


Eubacteria

Eubacteria

Prokaryotes

Both heterotroph and autotroph

Unicellular

So what are they?

Strep Throat

Bacteria in Yogurt and Cheese

On our skin

In our eye balls


Protist

Protist

Eukaryotes

Both heterotroph and autotroph

Unicellular or multicellular


Fungus

Fungus

Eukaryotes

Heterotophs

Mostly multicellular

Remember, these have cell walls!


Plants

Plants

Eukaryotes

Autotrophs

Multicellular


Animals

Animals

Eukaryotes

Multicellular

Heterotrophs


Characteristics of each kingdom1

Characteristics of Each Kingdom

Either

U

P

P

Either

U

E

Either

Either

M

mostly

E

H

E

A

M

E

H

M


Scientific names 2 names are better than 7

Scientific Names(2 names are better than 7)

Scientists identify organisms by their __________________________________

This system of naming organisms is known as _________________________

Examples:

“Quercus virginiana” (Live Oak Tree)

“Quercus alba” (White Oak Tree)

“Quercus rubra” (Red Oak Tree)

Genus and Species Names

Binomial Nomenclature


Essential question12

Essential Question

Classification allows scientists to organize organisms into groups. Simply by knowing what group an organism is in, scientists can also know information about that organism. For example, even if a scientist doesn’t know exactly what a hedgehog is, knowing that it is a mammal means the hedgehog has hair, gives milk to its young, has live birth, etc.

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________

Why is classification important to scientists?


The kingdoms of life

The Kingdoms of Life


The kingdoms of life1

The Kingdoms of Life

________

Archaebacteria

Eubacteria

________

_______

_______

_______

Monera

Where do humans belong?

Protists

Fungi

Plants

Animals

Study Hint…

My Always Energetic Puppy Finds Pizza Appetizing


How do scientists classify organisms

How do Scientists Classify Organisms?

Types of cells

Grouped based on similarities

Energy source

number of cells in bodies

eukaryote

nucleus

prokaryote

No nucleus

photosynthesis

autotroph

heterotroph

Eats things

unicellular

One cell

multicellular

Many celled


Types of cells

Types of Cells

Types of Cells

Types of Cells

Types of Cells

Types of Cells

Types of Cells

Prokaryote

Prokaryote

Prokaryote

Prokaryote

Prokaryote

Prokaryote

Eukaryote

Eukaryote

Eukaryote

Eukaryote

Eukaryote

NO Nucleus

DNA floats freely

NO Nucleus

DNA floats freely

NO Nucleus

DNA floats freely

NO Nucleus

DNA floats freely

Nucleus neatly holds DNA

Nucleus neatly holds DNA

Nucleus neatly holds DNA

Like a grocery bag holds groceries

Like a grocery bag holds groceries


Source of energy

Source of Energy

Autotroph

Heterotroph

Eats something else

Makes it’s own food

Inside the cell!


Number of cells

Number of Cells

Unicellular

Multicellular

Made of one Cell

Made of many Cells


Bacteria vs viruses

Bacteria vs Viruses

_______

Single cell organism

Are alive

Are usuallybeneficial for an organism

Harmful ones can be treated with Antibiotics (killing the life)

_______

NOT a cell (protein coat and RNA)

Are not alive

They are alwaysharmful to the host

Cannot be treated with antibiotics

Only a few antiviral medicines are available.

Bacteria

Viruses


What about a virus

What about a Virus?

Not Alive Not Alive Not Alive Not Alive

A virus is strand of hereditary material surrounded by a protein coat

Not alive because they do not meet most of the characteristics of life

FOR EXAMPLE:

  • Do not use own energy

  • They cannot reproduce without a host cell

  • They do not grow or develop

  • Not made of a Cell


Human body systems

Human Body Systems:


Science fcat review

Skeletal

Muscular

Digestive


Science fcat review

Respiratory

Circulatory

Excretory


Science fcat review

Nervous

Lymphatic

Immune


Antibiotics vs vaccine

Antibiotics vs Vaccine

Taken BEFORE you get sick!

Broken or damaged _____________ (anything that can make you sick such as bacteria and viruses)

Given to a person to stimulate an immune response

the body makes ___________ to that specific pathogen

Protection from that disease can be long-lasting but not necessarily permanent

Medicine taken AFTER you get sick!

Destroys ___________ only

Will NOT kill viruses

Overuse and improper use is leading to the creation of _________________ those that can not be killed by traditional antibiotics.

PATHOGENS

BACTERIA

ANTIBODIES

“Resistant Bacteria”


Essential questions about the human body

Essential Questions about the Human Body

Explain what would happen if a person’s sweat glands did not produce sweat.

Answer: The person would not be able to maintain a _______ body ___________ and may overheat. The person would not be able to ________ certain waste products through the skin that may result in a build-up of ______ in the body.

constant

temperature

release

toxins


Essential questions about the human body1

Essential Questions about the Human Body

Describe the roles of chemical and mechanical digestion in the process of eating and digesting an apple. ER

Answer: A correct answer would include at least two mechanical examples and two chemical examples.

_________________: Chewing in the mouth, moved by the tongue, churning/mixing in the stomach, movement along the intestines.

_________________: Enzymes and acids found in substances such as saliva, stomach acid, and insulin (not bile).

Mechanical examples

Chemical examples


Essential questions about the human body2

Essential Questions about the Human Body

Explain how a diet high in fat and cholesterol affects the functions of your circulatory system.

Answer: Foods high in fat and cholesterol can result in ________ in the arteries. This can cause a decrease or complete blockage of blood flow and would result in reduced ________ and _______ reaching target tissues. This can cause _________, heart failure, or even death.

Build-up

oxygen

nutrients

diseases


Essential questions about the human body3

Essential Questions about the Human Body

Explain how the respiratory system maintains a balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood and provides energy for the body.

Answer: The ___________ system maintains a balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood by moving air through the lungs transferring oxygen to red blood cells. The _______ delivers this oxygen to the body cells where it is used in cellular respiration that releases energy for the body to use. The carbon dioxide waste products are __________ to the lungs in the blood for exhaling.

respiratory

blood

carried back


Essential questions about the human body4

Essential Questions about the Human Body

Explain how the excretory system helps to properly balance fluids and chemicals to maintain homeostasis within the body.

Answer: To maintain homeostasis, fluid and chemical levels within the body must be balanced. Waste products must be eliminated by the excretory system. A correct answer would include at least two examples of excretory organs and the waste products that they eliminate.

_________: filters excess fluids and toxins from the blood

_________: stores/excretes liquid wastes

______: secretes salts and cell wastes

_____________: undigested food

______: carbon dioxide (waste product of cellular respiration)

Kidneys

Bladder

Skin

Large intestine

Lungs


Genetics

Genetics:

The Science of Heredity


Science fcat review

Think:


Genetics vs physical traits

Genetic Traits

Genotype(XX or XY)

Allele (‘x’-one letter of the code)

Dominant- trait“in control”, use a capital letter- “T”= Tall

Recessive- trait may “hide”; use lower case letter- “t”= short

Purebred = Homozygous

Two of the same alleles for a trait

“TT”- TALL or “tt”- short

Hybrid = Heterozygous

Two DIFFERENT alleles for the same trait

“Tt” (TALL hybrid)

Physical Traits

Phenotype- the trait that physically shows

Hair color, eye color, skin color, gender...

Flower color, leaf shape…

Physical traits are the result of the genotype

Genetics vs Physical Traits


Some good genetics words to know

Some Good Genetics Words to know

  • Parents

  • Offspring- the “children”

  • Heredity

  • Inheritance- the passing of traits from parent to offspring

  • Traits- a characteristic or an organism (hair color, feathers)

  • Pedigree- the map of a trait through a family history

  • Gene- a single piece of information controlling a trait

  • Chromosome- condensed DNA containing genes

  • DNA- hereditary material, instructions for life

  • Mutation- a change in the DNA

  • Meiosis- cell division resulting in Sex Cells (sperm/egg cell)

  • Punnett square- tool used to determine the chance a train will get passed on to the offspring


Science fcat review

Polygenic Inheritance

____________________- many pairs of alleles to control a single trait (like skin color – “AaBBcc”)

_________two expressions of a trait physically show at the same time (black and white feathers in a rooster- “BW”)

__________________the expressions of a trait BLEND together (in “four o’clocks”: red + white = pink flowers)

_____________- a trait carried on a sex chromosome (“Xc”- the trait for colorblindness is passed attached to the “X” chromosome)

Genetic Engineering

Codominant

Incomplete Dominance

Sex-linked Trait


Major scientific contributors

Major Scientific Contributors

Gregor Mendel

  • ______________

    • “the father of Genetics”; created the lettering system to show dominant vs recessive traits

  • R. C. Punnett

    • Invented the “punnett square” to calculate the probability of passing on a trait to an offspring


Mendel and genetics

Mendel and Genetics

Genotype

Phenotype

Dominant or Recessive

TT

Tt

tt

TallDominant

TallDominant

ShortRecessive


Punnett genetics probability

Punnett, & Genetics Probability

Punnett Square


Human inheritance

Human Inheritance


Human inheritance1

Single genes

Widow’s peak

such as

Blood type

Multiple alleles

such as

controlled by

Height

Many genes

such as

Colorblindness

Sex-linked genes

such as

Human Inheritance

Human traits


Pedigree

A circle represents a female.

A square represents a male.

A horizontal line connecting a male and female represents a marriage.

A vertical line and a bracket connect the parents to their children.

A half-shaded circle or square indicates that a person is a carrier.

A completely shaded circle or square indicates that a person has the trait.

A circle or square that is not shaded in green indicates that a person neither has the trait nor is a carrier.

Pedigree


Genetics ws 1

Genetics ws # 1

1.  For each genotype below, indicate whether it is heterozygous (He) or homozygous (Ho)

2.  For each of the genotypes below write the phenotype that would show. 


Genetics ws 11

Genetics ws #1

3.  For each phenotype below, list the genotypes (2-letter combination that creates that trait)


Punnett square practice

Punnett Square Practice

Part 1: Hair Color: B-Brownb-blond

Dad’s hair color? Brown Dad’s hair color? BrownDad’s hair color? Brown

Mom’s hair color? Blond Mom’s hair color? Brown Mom’s hair color? Brown

Offspring Hair Color:

100% Brown 100% Brown75% Brown

0 % Blond 0 % Blond25 % Blond


Punnett square practice1

Punnett Square Practice

Part 2: Eye Color: B= Brown b=blue g-*green

*(recessive to brown but dominant over blue)


Punnett square practice2

Punnett Square Practice

Part 2: Eye Color: B= Brown b=blue g-*green

*(recessive to brown but dominant over blue)


Punnett square practice3

Punnett Square Practice

Part 3: Blood Type: Type A= AA, Ai Type B= BB, BiType ABType O= ii


Science fcat review

Punnett Square Practice

Sex Linked Disability- carried on a gender chromosome

Color vision= XC XC, XC Y

Carrier for colorblind (physically has color vision) = XC Xc

Colorblind=XcXc, XcY


Essential question13

Essential Question

  • In cats, black fur is dominant over white fur. How can two black cats produce white kittens?

  • Answer: In order for two black cats to produce kittens with white fur when black fur is dominant, both parents must be heterozygous and carry the recessive gene for white fur.

BB or Bb= black fur

bb= white fur


Science fcat review

Essential Question

Explain why a color-blind father will pass the gene on to his daughter, but not his son

Answer: Color-blindness is a recessive, sex-linked trait attached to the X chromosome. A color-blind father can pass this allele on to his daughter and not to his son, because in order to produce a son the father must pass on a Y chromosome. The Y chromosome does not carry the trait for color-blindness.

Sons get the Y chromosome from dad

Daughters


Essential question14

Essential Question

  • Describe with examples of each, how mutations can be harmful and helpful to an organism. ER

  • Answer: Mutations occur when a permanent change in the DNA takes place and can have a harmful or helpful effect on an organism. For example, mutations during cell division can result in cancerous growths, which is harmful to an animal. A mutation can cause a plant to be resistant to a certain disease, which would be helpful as it would result in increased survival for the plant. (examples will vary).


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