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FCAT 2.0 LIFE SCIENCE REVIEW. Mrs. Bloch Coral Gables Preparatory Academy. Big Idea 14: Organization and Development of Living Organisms SC.6.L.14.1 Describe and identify patterns in the hierarchical organization of organisms.

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Fcat 2 0 life science review

FCAT 2.0 LIFE SCIENCE REVIEW

Mrs. Bloch

Coral Gables Preparatory Academy


Fcat 2 0 life science review

Big Idea 14: Organization and Development of Living Organisms

SC.6.L.14.1 Describe and identify patterns in the hierarchical organization of organisms.

SC.6.L.14.2Investigate and explain the components of the scientific theory of cells (cell theory): all organisms are composed of cells (single-celled or multi-cellular), all cells come from pre-existing cells, and cells are the basic unit of life.

SC.6.L.14.3 Recognize and explore how cells of all organisms undergo similar processes to maintain homeostasis, including extracting energy from food, getting rid of waste, and reproducing.

SC.6.L.14.4Compare and contrast the structure and function of major organelles of plant and animal cells, including cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and vacuoles.

SC.6.L.14.5 Identify and investigate the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive, excretory, immune, nervous, and musculoskeletal) and describe ways these systems interact with each other to maintain homeostasis.

SC.6.L.14.6 Compare and contrast types of infectious agents that may infect the human body, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites.


Fcat 2 0 life science review

SC.6.L.14.1 Describe and identify patterns in the hierarchical organization of organisms.


What are the levels of organization in an organism pg 363

What are the Levels of Organization in an Organism?Pg. 363

Organisms, or living things, are made of tiny particles that can join together, making larger structures.

The levels of organization in an organism are:

Smallestatoms

elements

molecules

compounds

cells

Tissues

Organs

Largestorgan systems


The levels of organization in an organism from smallest to largest

The levels of organization in an organism from smallest to largest:


Fcat 2 0 life science review

SC.6.L.14.2 Investigate and explain the components of the scientific theory of cells (cell theory): all organisms are composed of cells (single-celled or multi-cellular), all cells come from pre-existing cells, and cells are the basic unit of life.


What are cells pg 368

What are Cells? Pg. 368

Mushroom, tree, spider, and bird= Living organisms

Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.

Cells--- form the parts of an organism ---- carry out functions.

Organism= are made of one or more cells

Cells carry out basic functions that let it:

Live

Grow

Reproduce

Cell functions can include:

obtaining food, water, and oxygen, getting rid of waste, and reproducing by division.


What is the cell theory pg 371

What is The Cell Theory? Pg. 371

The cell theory explains the relationship between cells and living things.

The cell theory was developed about two hundred years after the

invention of the microscope, an instrument that makes small objects

look larger, and the discovery of cells.

The cell theory states the following:

All living things are composed of cells.

Cells are the basic units of structure & function in living things.

All cells are produced from other cells.


How does your body stays in balance pg 419

How Does Your Body Stays in Balance? Pg.419

SC.6.L.14.3 Recognize and explore how cells of all organisms undergo similar processes to maintain homeostasis, including extracting energy from food, getting rid of waste, and reproducing.

Although conditions outside the human body may change,

conditions inside the body stay stable.

conditions such as:

chemical makeup of the cells

their water content

body temperature.

The condition in which an organism’s internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the outside environment is called homeostasis.

Homeostasis is necessary for an organism’s

proper functioning and survival.


How does your body stays in balance pg 420

How Does Your Body Stays in Balance? Pg. 420

All of your body systems working together maintain homeostasis and keep the body in balance.

Body reactions that maintain homeostasis in the face of changes in external conditions include:

shivering being thirsty.

sweating being hungry

The nervous and endocrine systems respond to a change in the body’s internal environment and control the responses. They also signal other body systems to play a role in the response.

Homeostasis is NEVER the responsibility of only one system; it relies on the interaction of many body systems.


Fcat 2 0 life science review

SC.6.L.14.4 Compare and contrast the structure and function of major organelles of plant and animal cells, including cell wall, cell membrane, nucleus, cytoplasm, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and vacuoles.

PLANT CELLS VS. ANIMAL CELLS

DIFFERENCES BETWEEEN

PLANT AND ANIMAL CELLS

1. PLANTS HAVE A RIGID CELL WALL

2. PLANTS HAVE CHLOROPLASTS

3. PLANTS HAVE A CENTRAL VACUOLE

4. PLANT CELLS HAVE A BOXY SHAPE

5. ANIMAL CELLS HAVE A ROUND SHAPE


How do the parts of a cell work

How Do the Parts of a Cell Work?

  • Cells contain a number of smaller structures that divide up the jobs inside the cell.

  • Each kind of cell structure has a different function within a cell.

  • Cell Wall rigid layer that surrounds the cells of plants and other organisms (mushrooms)= protects and support the cell

  • Cell wall made of CELLULOSE

  • Materials that pass through the cell wall= water & oxygen

  • Animal Cells= no cell wall


How do the parts of a cell work1

How Do the Parts of a Cell Work?

  • Every cell is surrounded by a cell membrane, which controls the movement of materials into and out of the cell. (kind of a screen)

  • Example of things that pass through the membrane:

    • Food particles

    • Water

    • Oxygen


How do the parts of a cell work2

How Do the Parts of a Cell Work?

Organelles: cell structures that are specialized and carry out specific jobs inside the cell. (they are suspended in the cell’s gel-like fluid.)

*nucleusdirects the cell’s activities (functions similar as a brain, but is not a brain) (largest organelle)

nuclear envelope= surrounds the nucleus

Chromatin- within the nucleus, strand of DNA & Protein-has the information (411) for directing the cell’s functions.

Nucleolus- round structure in the nucleus, where ribosomes are made.

Ribosomes- small, grain shaped organelles that produce protein


Organelles in the cytoplasm pg 383

Organelles in the Cytoplasm pg 383

*cytoplasm: gel-like fluid found inside the cell

(cell membrane and nucleus)

*mitochondriaconvert the energy stored in food

to energy the cell can use (rod-like structures)

ribosomes produce proteins

endoplasmic recticulumand Golgi apparatus

modify proteins & move them around in the cell.

*Vacuolesare structures where the cell can store

water, food, or wastes.

lysosomes break down food into smaller particles

*Chloroplasts-green plant cell that carries out

photosynthesis.


How do the parts of a cell work3

How Do the Parts of a Cell Work?

Plant cells have two structures that are not found in animal cells:

1.) the cell wall-- surrounds the cell and helps support it

2.) Chloroplasts, captures the energy in sunlight to power the process the plant uses to make its own food.


Fcat 2 0 life science review

SC.6.L.14.5 Identify and investigate the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive, excretory, immune, nervous, and musculoskeletal) and describe ways these systems interact with each other to maintain homeostasis.


Skeletal and muscular system

SKELETAL AND MUSCULAR SYSTEM

  • Muscles and bones work together to make your body move. The nervous system tells your muscles when to act.

  • The skeletal system, or skeleton, includes all the bones in the body.

  • The muscular system is made up of ALL the muscles in the body.


Which systems move materials within the body

Which Systems Move Materials Within the Body?

The respiratory, digestive, circulatory, and excretory systems play key roles in moving materials within your body.

The circulatory system—heart, blood vessels, and blood—brings essential materials to all cells of the body and carries away cell wastes.

For example

brings= oxygen/ water carries away= the waste carbon dioxide /excess water


Which systems move materials within the body1

Which Systems Move Materials Within the Body?

The respiratory system oxygen into the body carbon dioxide.

Air that is inhaled lungs (organ of the respiratory system) where oxygen from the air moves into the bloodstream.

The circulatory system delivers oxygen to all body

cells and carries back carbon dioxide to the lungs,

where it is eliminated when air is exhaled. Oxygen

is needed by the cells to release energy from sugar

molecules.

Breathing In, Breathing Out

You breathe

in and out more than 20,000 times in one day.


Which systems move materials within the body pg 415

Which Systems Move Materials Within the Body? Pg. 415

  • The digestive system breaks down foods into nutrients, substances that the body needs to carry out its functions, which then move into the bloodstream through absorption. The circulatory system delivers these nutrients to all body cells.

Getting Food

The digestive system breaks down foods into sugars and nutrients that the body can use. It works with the circulatory system to get food to the cells.


Which systems controls body functions

Which Systems Controls Body Functions?

The nervous system (NS) and the endocrine system (ES) work together to control body functions.

Information gathered by the senses (in the form of a stimulus) travels through nerves to the brain or spinal cord and produces a response, often involving other body systems.

Glands of the ES produce hormones, chemicals released directly into the bloodstream and transported throughout the body. Hormones affect many body processes.

i.e. exercising glands send message ES ES signals to make you sweat= sweat to cool down your body.


Fcat 2 0 life science review

System Interactions pg. 417

  • Endocrine System

  • The chemical signals released by the endocrine system are called hormones.

  • Hormones are transported = Circulatory System

  • Hormones affect your body process(how it functions). It also affect your reproductive system (male & female)

  • For example:

  • how much water in bloodstream

  • amount of sugar in the bloodstream


What are the characteristics of all living things pg 581

What Are the Characteristics of All Living Things? Pg. 581

  • All organisms/living things, share 6 important characteristics. All living things have:

    • cellular organization

    • contain similar chemicals

    • use energy

    • respond to their surroundings

    • grow and develop

    • reproduce.


What are the characteristics of all living things pg 582

What Are the Characteristics of All Living Things? Pg. 582

All organisms are made up of cells. A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in an organism.

Single-celled organisms, like bacteria, are unicellular organisms.

Organisms composed of many cells are multicellular.

The chemicals in cells include:

water, carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. Nucleic acids are the genetic material of cells.

The combination of reactions that break down and build up materials to provide a cell with energy is metabolism.


The naming system of linnaeus pg 592

The Naming System of Linnaeus pg. 592

The system scientists use to classify organisms was developed by Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus and is called binomial nomenclature .

In binomial nomenclature each organism has a unique two-part scientific name.

e.i.Felisconcolor= puma

The first word is the genus, a classification grouping that contains similar, closely related organisms. (share same characteristics)

e.i.Felis= sharp, retractable claws, hunt other animals

The second word is the species name. This often describes where an organism lives or its appearance

A Species is a group of similar organisms that can mate with each other and produce offspring that can also mate and reproduce.


What are the levels of classification pg 594

What Are the Levels of Classification pg. 594

The classification system has eight levels.

A domain is the highest level of organization.

kingdoms

phyla

classes

orders

families

genera

species

*Kings Play Cards On Fat Green Stools

The more classification levels two organisms share, the more characteristics they have in common and the more closely related they are.


Fcat 2 0 life science review

Classifying Life

Domain Eukarya

Kingdom Animalia

Levels of Classification

As you move down these levels of classification, the number of organisms decreases. The organisms that remain share more characteristics with one another and are more related.

Phylum Chordata

Class Aves

Order Strigiformes

Family Strigidae

Genus Bubo

Species Bubo virginianus


Fcat 2 0 life science review

Identifying Organisms

The six paired statements in this taxonomic key describe physical characteristics of different organisms.

Classifying Life


How are organisms classified into domains and kingdoms pg 598

How Are Organisms Classified Into Domains and Kingdoms? Pg. 598

1869 scientist classified organisms as animals and plants

Thanks to the invention of the microscopes, this has helped scientists discover tiny new organisms and identify differences among cells.

The modern classification system is made up of three domains.

Domain Bacteria, Domain Achaea, & Domain Eukarya

Within the domains are kingdoms.

Organisms are placed into domains and kingdoms based on:

their cell type,

their ability to make food

the number of cells in their bodies.


Domain bacteria pg 599

Domain Bacteria pg. 599

Bacteria are all around you

Some are autotrophs, while others are heterotrophs.

Members of domain Bacteria are prokaryotes (organisms) whose

cells lack a nucleus.

A nucleus is a dense area in a cell that contains nucleic acids, (DNA=Deoxyribonucleic acid) whichare the chemicals that

direct all of the cell’s activities.

In prokaryotes, nucleic acids are

not contained within a nucleus.

Prokaryotes = No Nucleus


Domain archae pg 599

Domain Archae pg. 599

Like bacteria, members of domain Archaeaare also unicellular prokaryotes

They can be autotrophs or heterotrophs.

Archaea are classified in their own domain because their chemical makeup

differs from that of bacteria.

Bacteria and archaeaalso differ in the structureand chemical makeup

of their cells.

Archaeacan be found in extreme environments

e.i. Deep oceans, hot springs, marshlands (plankton)


Domain eukarya pg 600

Domain Eukarya pg. 600

unicellular

multicellular

Domain Eukarya consists:

Eukaryotes

organisms with cells that contain nuclei.

Domain Eukarya is divided into four kingdoms:

protists

fungi

Plants

animals


Fcat 2 0 life science review

The Protist Kingdom is sometimes called the “odds and ends” kingdom. It includes:

-any eukaryote that cannot be classified as an animal, plant, or fungus.

-Some are autotrophs and some can be heterotrophs

-Most are unicellular (but some can be multicellular=seaweeds)

Fungi Kingdom:

Mushrooms, molds, and mildew are all members of the fungi kingdom.

Most fungi feed by absorbing nutrients from dead or decaying organisms.

Marine Dinoflagettates

AspergillusFumigatus


Fcat 2 0 life science review

THE PLANT KINGDOM

Includes a great variety of organisms, from giant Redwood trees to mosses.

All plants are autotrophs that make their own food.

THE ANIMAL KINGDOM

All animals are all heterotrophs.

Multicellular eukaryotes

Animals have different adaptations that allow them to locate food, capture it, eat it, and digest it.

Live in diverse environments/locations


Fcat 2 0 life science review

Big Idea 15: Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms

SC.7.L.15.1Recognize that fossil evidence is consistent with the scientific theory of evolution that living things evolved from earlier species.

SC.7.L.15.2 Explore the scientific theory of evolution by recognizing and explaining ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors contribute to evolution by natural selection and diversity of organisms.

SC.7.L.15.3 Explore the scientific theory of evolution by relating how the inability of a species to adapt within a changing environment may contribute to the extinction of that species.

Big Idea 16: Heredity and Reproduction

SC.7.L.16.1 Understand and explain that every organism requires a set of instructions that specifies its traits, that this hereditary information (DNA) contains genes located in the chromosomes of each cell, and that heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.

SC.7.L.16.2 Determine the probabilities for genotype and phenotype combinations using Punnett Squares and pedigrees.

SC.7.L.16.3 Compare and contrast the general processes of sexual reproduction requiring meiosis and asexual reproduction requiring mitosis.

SC.7.L.16.4 Recognize and explore the impact of biotechnology (cloning, genetic engineering, artificial selection) on the individual, society and the environment.


Fcat 2 0 life science review

Big Idea 17: Interdependence

SC.7.L.17.1 Explain and illustrate the roles of and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web.

SC.7.L.17.2 Compare and contrast the relationships among organisms such as mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, and commensalism.

SC.7.L.17.3 Describe and investigate various limiting factors in the local ecosystem and their impact on native populations, including food, shelter, water, space, disease, parasitism, predation, and nesting sites.

Big Idea 18: Matter and Energy Transformations

SC.8.L.18.1 Describe and investigate the process of photosynthesis, such as the roles of light, carbon dioxide, water and chlorophyll; production of food; release of oxygen.

SC.8.L.18.2 Describe and investigate how cellular respiration breaks down food to provide energy and releases carbon dioxide.

SC.8.L.18.3 Construct a scientific model of the carbon cycle to show how matter and energy are continuously transferred within and between organisms and their physical environment.

SC.8.L.18.4 Cite evidence that living systems follow the Laws of Conservation of Mass and Energy.


What is evolution pg 379

What is Evolution? Pg. 379

The diversity of life today and in the past can be explained by Evolution.

Evolution is change over time.

Over millions of years, evolution has resulted in organisms no longer living as well as the ones alive today. By understanding evolution, we can begin to understand the history of life on Earth.

  • Big Idea 15: Diversity and Evolution of Living Organisms

  • SC.7.L.15.1 Recognize that fossil evidence is consistent with the scientific theory of evolution that living things evolved from earlier species.

The scientific theory of evolution explains how living things descended from earlier organisms.


Fcat 2 0 life science review

What Evidence Supports Evolution? SC.7.L.15.2Explore the scientific theory of evolution by recognizing and explaining ways in which genetic variation and environmental factors contribute to evolution by natural selection and diversity of organisms.

  • How do scientists know that organisms change over time? They rely on four types of evidence that support the theory of evolution.

Fossils, similarities in DNA and protein structures, similar body structures, and patterns of early development all provide evidence that organisms have changed over time.

  • FOSSILS

  • SIMILARITIES IN DNA AND PROTEIN STRUCTURES

  • SIMILAR BODY STRUCTURES

  • PATTERNS OF EARLY DEVELOPMENT


Fossils pg 380

FOSSILS pg. 380

  • By examining fossils, scientists can infer the structures of ancient organisms. The fossil record provides clues about how and when new species evolved and how organisms are related.

  • How do these jawbones look similar?

  • How do they help to confirm the theory of evolution?


Similarities in dna and protein structures pg 381

Similarities in DNA and Protein Structures pg. 381

Why do some species have similar body structures or similar patterns of development? Scientists infer that species inherited many of the same genes from a common ancestor.

Genes are DNA sequences that

determine an organism’s characteristics.

The DNA bases along a gene specify what type of protein will be produced. Therefore, scientists can also compare the order of amino acids in a protein to see how closely related two species are.

Evidence from DNA and protein structure has confirmed conclusions about evolutionary relationships among organisms based on fossils, embryos, and body structure.


Similarities in body structure pg 382

Similarities in Body Structure pg. 382

  • An organism’s body structure is its basic body plan, which, in vertebrates, includes how its bones are arranged.

  • Fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals all have an internal skeleton with a backbone.

  • This similarity provides evidence that these animal groups evolved from a common ancestor.

  • Homologous Structures are similar structures that related species have inherited from a common ancestor.


Similarities in early development pg 383

Similarities in Early Development pg. 383

Scientists also infer evolutionary relationships by comparing the early development of different organisms. Similarities can further suggest that species are related to a common ancestor.

A look at the organisms show that:

1.They look similar in early stages

Of development.

2.All the organisms have a tail.

3.They also have a row of tiny slits

Along their throats.

The similarities suggest that these

Vertebrate species are related and

Share a common ancestor.


Diversity and fossils pg 385

Diversity and Fossils Pg. 385

In 1831, The British ship HMS Beagle set sail from England on a five year trip around the world. Charles Darwin was on board. Darwin was a naturalist--- a person who observes and studies the natural world.

During his five-year voyage around the world, Charles Darwin observed great diversity among living things, often within the same species.

Darwin also observed fossils that shared some, but not all, traits with living animals.

A trait is a specific characteristic that an organism can pass to its offspring.

Darwin also observed differences in plants and animals that lived in South America and the Galápagos Islands, which are off the coast of South America.

He attributed these differences to examples of adaptations - a trait that increases an organism’s ability to survive and reproduce.


Darwin s hypothesis pg 388

Darwin’s Hypothesis pg. 388

  • Darwin thought about what he had seen during his voyage on the Beagle. By this time, Darwin was convinced that organisms change over time. He wanted to know how organisms change. Over the next 20 years he consulted with other scientists and gathered more information. Based on his observations, Darwin reasoned that plants or animals that arrived on the Galapagos Islands faces conditions that were different from those on the nearby mainland.

  • The iguanas on the Galapagos Islands have large claws that allow them to grip slippery rocks so they can feed on seaweed. The Iguanas on the mainland have smaller claws that allow them to climb trees so they can eat leaves.


What was darwin s hypothesis pg 388

What Was Darwin’s Hypothesis? Pg. 388

Darwin hypothesized that species gradually change over many generations and become better adapted to new conditions.

Because the gradual change in a species over time is called evolution, Darwin’s ideas are often referred to as the theory of evolution.

A scientific theory is a

well-tested concept

that explains a wide

range of observations. .


What is natural selection pg 390

What is Natural Selection? Pg. 390

In 1858, Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace proposed the same explanation— natural selection —for how evolution occurs.

Natural selection is the process by which individuals that are better adapted to their environment are more likely to survive and reproduce more than other members of the same species.

Darwin proposed that, over a long time, natural selection can lead to change. Helpful variations may gradually accumulate in a species, while unfavorable ones may disappear. Without variations, all the members of a species would have the same traits and equal chances of surviving and reproducing.


Overproduction pg 390

Overproduction pg. 390

Darwin knew that most species

produce far more offspring than

can possibly survive. In many

species, so many offspring are

produced that there are not

enough resources – food, water,

and living space – for all of them.

Variation pg. 391

Members of a species differ from

one another in many of their

traits. Variation is any difference

between Individuals of the same

species.

For Example, sea turtles may differ

in color, size, the ability to swim

quickly, and shell hardness.


Fcat 2 0 life science review

Competition pg. 391

Since food, space, and other resources are limited, the members of a species must compete with one another to survive. Competition doesn’t always involve physical fights between members of a species. Instead, competition is usually indirect. For example, some turtles may not find enough to eat. A slower turtle may be caught by a predator, while a faster turtle may escape. Only a few turtles will survive to reproduce.

Selection pg. 391

Darwin observed that some variations make individuals

better adapted to their environment. Those individuals

are more likely to survive and reproduce Their offspring may inherit the helpful characteristic. The offspring, in turn, will be more likely to survive and reproduce, and pass the characteristic to their offspring. After many generations, more members of the species will

have the helpful characteristic


Genes and natural selection pg 392

Genes and Natural Selection pg. 392

  • Darwin could not explain what caused variations or how they were passed on, but scientists later learned that variations can result from changes in genes and the shuffling of different forms of genes when egg and sperm join. Only traits that are inherited, or controlled by genes, can be acted upon by natural selection. Other factors, such as competition and environmental change, can affect an organism’s survival.


How do new species form pg 394

How Do New Species Form? Pg. 394

Natural selection explains how variations can lead to changes in a species. But how could a new species form?

A new species can form when a group of individuals remains isolated from the rest of its species long enough to evolve different traits that prevent reproduction.

Isolation, or complete separation, occurs when some members of a species are cut off from the rest of the species.

Example of Natural barriers:

a river, volcano, or mountain range may separate group members.

It is possible that one day each set of group members will become so different from each other that they will no longer be able to mate with each other and will become separate species!


What factors affect biodiversity pg 396

What Factors Affect Biodiversity? Pg. 396

Biodiversity is the number of different species in an area.

Factors that affect biodiversity in an ecosystem include:

area

climate

genetic diversity

niche diversity


Climate pg 396

Climate pg. 396

  • Climate affects the biodiversity in a certain area.

  • For example, tropical rain forests are the most diverse ecosystems in the world. They are warm and have large amounts of rainfall throughout the year. Many plants grow year-round, which means that food is always available for other organisms.

  • In contrast, a tundra region has a very short growing season. Low temperatures and low rainfall limit the biodiversity in that climate.


Genetic diversity pg 397

Genetic Diversity pg. 397

  • Diversity is very important within a species. Species need genetic diversity. Organisms in a healthy population have diverse traits such as color and size. Species that lack a diverse gene pool are less able to adapt and survive changes in the environment.


Niche diversity pg 397

Niche Diversity pg. 397

  • Coral Reefs are the second most diverse ecosystems in the world. Found only in shallow, warm waters, coral reefs are often called the rainforests of the sea. A coral reef supports many different niches. Niche- a role of an organism in its habitat, or how it makes its living.

  • A coral reef enables a greater number of species to live in it more than a uniform habitat like a flat sandbar, does.


Why do species go extinct pg 399

Why Do Species Go Extinct? Pg. 399

Extinction- When all the members of a species disappear from Earth.

Extinctionusually occurs when a species is unable to adapt within a changing environment.

Process of Extinction-

Imagine a species of spider that depends on a certain plant for food.

Now suppose the plant has died out.

If this insect can not adapt and find a new food source

they will begin to die.

Once the size of their population drops to a certain level

the species may not be able to recover and may become extinct.


Extinction and human activities pg 399

Extinction and Human Activities pg. 399

  • A threatened species is one that can become

  • endangered.

  • An endangered species is one that is in danger of

  • becoming extinct.

  • Extinction is a natural process that usually happens gradually. However, most scientists think that extinction rates have increased in recent years due to human activities.

  • Slow Down for Panthers!

    Road signs such as this one warn drivers in Florida to watch out for panthers in the road.


    Fcat 2 0 life science review

    Big Idea 16: Heredity and Reproduction

    SC.7.L.16.1 Understand and explain that every organism requires a set of instructions that specifies its traits, that this hereditary information (DNA) contains genes located in the chromosomes of each cell, and that heredity is the passage of these instructions from one generation to another.


    The structure of dna pg 409

    The Structure of DNA pg. 409

    • Parents pass traits to their offspring through chromosomes. Chromosomes are composed mostly of DNA, which is shaped like a twisted ladder, or “double helix”. The sides of the double helix are made up of sugar molecules called deoxyribose, alternating with phosphate molecules. DNA’s full name, deoxyribonucleic acid, comes from this structure.


    The structure of dna pg 4091

    The Structure of DNA pg. 409

    The rungs of DNA are made of nitrogen bases, molecules that contain nitrogen and other elements.

    adenine (A)

    thymine (T)

    guanine (G)

    cytosine (C).

    A gene is a section of a DNA molecule that contains the code for one specific protein.

    That code is a series of bases in a specific order—for example, ATGA CGTA C.

    A single gene may contain several hundred to a million or more bases.


    Order of the bases pg 411

    Order of the Bases pg. 411

    The code each gene contains determines the structure of a protein.

    The order of the nitrogen bases along a gene forms a genetic code that specifies what type of protein will be produced.

    Remember that proteins are long-chain molecules made of individual amino acids.

    In the genetic code, a group of three DNA bases codes for one specific amino acid.

    For example, the three-base sequence CGT (cytosine-guanine-thymine) always codes for the amino acid alanine.

    The order of the three-base code units determines the order in which amino acids are put together to form a protein.


    What did mendel observe pg 414

    What Did Mendel Observe? Pg. 414

    In the mid-nineteenth century, Gregor Mendel wondered why pea plants had different characteristics.

    Each characteristic, such as height or seed color, is called a trait.

    Mendel wondered why the forms of the pea plants’ traits were often—but not always—similar to their parents.

    His discoveries form the foundation of genetics, the study of heredity.

    Heredity- How traits are passed from parents to offspring.


    F 1 and f 2 offspring pg 416

    F1 and F2 Offspring pg. 416

    A purebred organism is the offspring of many generations that have the same form of a trait.

    Mendel cross-pollinated, or “crossed,” purebred tall with purebred short plants.

    Scientists call these the parental, or P, generation.

    The offspring of the P generation are called the first filial, or F1, generation.

    Their offspring are called the second filial, or F2, generation.


    How do alleles affect inheritance pg 417

    How Do Alleles Affect Inheritance? Pg. 417

    Today, scientists use the word gene to describe the factors that control a trait. Alleles are the different forms of a gene.

    The gene that controls stem height in peas has one allele for short stems and one allele for long stems.

    An organism’s traits are controlled by the alleles it inherits from its parents.

    Some alleles are dominant – strong traits that overpower weak traits. Dominant alleles are symbolized with capital letters.

    while other alleles are recessive- weak traits that are hidden whenever the dominant allele is present. Recessive alleles are symbolized by lowercase letters


    Alleles in mendel s crosses pg 418

    Alleles in Mendel’s Crosses pg. 418

    In Mendel’s cross for stem height, the purebred tall plants in the P generation had two alleles for tall stems. TT

    The purebred short plants had two alleles for short stems. Tt

    But…. Each F1 plant inherited one allele for tall stems and one allele for short stems. Tt - These plants are called hybrids

    All of these F1 plants are tall because the dominant allele T overpowers the recessive allele t .

    Purebred – TT or tt

    Hybrid - Tt


    Punnett squares and pedigrees p 422 423

    Punnett Squares and Pedigrees P.422-423

    A Punnett square is a chart that shows all the possible ways alleles

    can combine in a genetic cross

    In a genetic cross, the combination of alleles that parents can pass on to an offspring is based on probability

    The boxes in the Punnett square show the possible combinations of alleles that the offspring can inherit

    A pedigree is a chart or “family tree” that shows the presence or absence of a trait according to the relationships within a family across several generations

    Doctors us pedigrees to trace and diagnose genetic disorders


    What are phenotype and genotype p 424

    What are Phenotype and Genotype p.424

    • An organism’s phenotype is its physical appearance or, visible traits

    • An organism’s genotype is its genetic makeup or allele

      • The allele for smooth pea pods (S) is dominant. Therefore those with the phenotype of smooth pods can have two genotypes, SS or Ss

      • The plants with a phenotype of pinched pods would only only have one genotype, ss

  • An organism that has two identical alleles for a trait is said to be homozygous for that trait. SS or ss

  • An organism that has two different alleles for a trait is said to be heterozygous for that trait. Ss

    • Recall that Mendel used the term hybrid to describe heterozygous


  • Fcat 2 0 life science review

    Asexual ReproductionSC.7.L.16.3 Compare and contrast the general processes of sexual reproduction requiring meiosis and asexual reproduction requiring mitosis.

    • Requires only one parent

    • Offspring have 100% the same chromosomes as the parent.

      • In other words, the offspring are exact “clones” of the parent.

      • Most unicellular organisms

        reproduce this way.

      • Mitosis

      • Movie


    Asexual reproduction

    Asexual Reproduction

    • Binary Fission

      • Bacteria

      • Protists

    Binary fission is a form of asexual reproduction where every organelle is copied and the organism divides in two.


    Asexual reproduction1

    Vegetative reproduction is a type of asexual reproduction in plants that relies on multi-cellular structures formed by the parent plant.  It has long been exploited in horticulture and agriculture, with various methods employed to multiply stocks of plants.

    Asexual Reproduction

    • Plant cuttings

    • Budding

      • Hydra

        • Movie

    Budding is a means of asexual reproduction whereby a new individual develops from an outgrowth of a parent, splits off, and lives independently.

    Regeneration

    Regeneration occurs when a body part has broken off and the organism grows a new one.


    Sexual reproduction

    Sexual Reproduction

    • Requires two parents that each share ½ of the genetic information.

      • Offspring share the characteristics of each parent.

      • Meiosis

    • All the members of the Animal Kingdom

      • Fish

      • Mammals

      • Amphibians

      • Birds

      • Reptiles

      • Insects

      • Crustaceans


    Sexual reproduction1

    Sexual Reproduction

    • Happens 2 ways

      • Internally (inside)

        • The egg is fertilized by sperm inside the female

          • Mammals, birds, reptiles, insects, spiders

      • Externally (outside)

        • The egg is fertilized by sperm outside the female

        • The female lays the eggs and then the male fertilizes them.

          • Fish and some amphibians

          • Plants and fungi (pollen and spores)


    Fcat 2 0 life science review

    Big Idea 17: InterdependenceSC.7.L.17.1 Explain and illustrate the roles of and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web.What are the two parts of an Organisms Habitat? Pg. 478

    • An organism interacts with both the living and nonliving parts of its habitat.

    • Biotic Factors

    • Biotic factors are the living, or once living, parts of a habitat. In the prairie dog’s habitat, plants that provide food and decomposing plants are biotic factors.

    • Ferrets and eagles that hunt the prairie dog are also biotic factors.

    • Worms and bacteria that live in the soil are biotic factors too.


    Abiotic factors pg 478

    Abiotic Factors Pg. 478

    • Abiotic factors = The nonliving parts of a habitat.

    • Water, sunlight, oxygen, temperature, and soilare all abiotic factorsin a prairie dog’s habitat.


    How is an ecosystem organized pg 480

    An ecosystem is organized into 4 levels.

    How is an Ecosystem Organized? Pg. 480

    • 1. Organisms

    • A species is a group of organisms that can mate with each other and produce offspring that can also mate and reproduce. The black-tailed prairie dogs of the Nebraska plains are all members of one species.

      • 2. Populations

  • A population refers to all the members of one species living in a particular area. All of the prairie dogs in a prairie dog town are a population.

  • 3. Communities

  • All of the different populations that live together in an environment are a community. For example, a prairie includes prairie dogs, hawks, grasses, snakes, and many other organisms.

  • 4. Ecosystems

  • All the living and nonliving things in an area. An ecosystem is made up of the community of organisms that live in a particular area, as well the nonliving surroundings.


  • How is an ecosystem organized pg 4801

    How is an Ecosystem Organized? Pg. 480

    • The study of how living things interact with each other and with their environment is called ecology.

    • The smallest level of organization is a single organism, which belongs to a population that includes other members of its species. The population belongs to a community of different species. The community and abiotic factors together form an ecosystem.


    Fcat 2 0 life science review

    Fig. 3 Levels of an Ecosystem pg. 480

    Ecological Organization

    The smallest level of organization is the organism. The largest is the entire ecosystem. Describe: Draw or write how an ecosystem of your choice is organized. Identify each level. Include biotic and abiotic examples.


    What are the energy roles in an ecosystem pg 483

    What are the Energy Roles in an Ecosystem? Pg. 483

    Just like an instrument has a role in a piece of music or a song, each organism has a role in the movement of energy through the environment. how it obtains energy

    An organism’s energy role is determined:

    it interacts with other organisms

    Each of the organisms in an ecosystem fills the energy role of : producer, consumer, or decomposer.


    Producers

    Producers

    Energy enters most ecosystems as sunlight.

    An organism that can make its own food is a producer.

    Plants, algae, and some types of bacteria, capture the energy of sunlight and store it as food energy.

    These organisms use the sun’s energy to turn water and carbon dioxide into food molecules in a process called photosynthesis.

    Producersare the source of all the food in an ecosystem.

    Some producers make their own food without sunlight.

    Ex. Some bacteria can make their own food using the energy in hydrogen sulfide, a gas in their environment in rocks deep beneath the ground.


    Consumers

    Consumers


    Decomposers

    Decomposers

    • Decomposers break down wastes and dead organisms and return the raw materials to the ecosystem.

    • Mushrooms and bacteria are common decomposers.


    How does energy move through an ecosystem pg 486

    How Does Energy Move Through an Ecosystem pg. 486

    Energy moves through an ecosystem when one organism eats another.

    A food chain is a series of events

    in which one organism eats

    another and obtains energy.

    A food web consists of many

    overlapping food chains in an

    ecosystem.

    Organisms may play more than one role in an ecosystem. Just as food chains overlap and connect, food webs interconnect also.


    Energy pyramids pg 488

    Energy Pyramids pg. 488

    • When an organism in an ecosystem eats, it obtains energy. The organism uses some of this energy to move, grow, reproduce, and carry out other life activities. These activities produce heat, a form of energy, which is then released into the environment. When heat is released, the amount of energy that is available to the next consumer is reduced.

    • A diagram called an energy pyramid shows the amount of energy that moves from one feeding level to another in a food web. The most energy is available at the producer level of the pyramid. As energy moves up the pyramid, each level has less energy available than the level below.


    Energy pyramids

    Energy Pyramids

    • .


    Fcat 2 0 life science review

    SC.7.L.17.2 Compare and contrast the relationships among organisms such as mutualism, predation, parasitism, competition, and commensalism.

    Predation - An interaction is which one organism kills another for food.

    The predator- Thespecies that hunts and kills the prey.

    The prey – The species that is hunted or killed.

    -Predators have adaptations that help them catch prey.

    -Organisms have adaptations that help them avoid becoming prey.

    Predators can affect population size. If there are too many predators in an area, the number of prey will decrease. As a result, there is less food for predators and the predator population will go down too.


    What is competition pg 493

    What is Competition? Pg. 493

    Two major types of interactions among organisms are competition and predation.

    Competition- is the

    struggle between organisms

    to survive as they attempt

    to occupy the same niche

    and use the same limited

    resources.

    Organisms that share the same habitat often have adaptations that reduce competition. For example, three types of birds can each get food from different parts of the same tree.


    What are the three types of symbiosis pg 497

    What Are The Three Types Of Symbiosis?pg. 497

    • The 3 main types of symbiotic relationships are

    • 1. Mutualism

      • 2. Commensalism

  • 3. Parasitism


  • Mutualism

    Mutualism

    Mutualism is a relationship in which both species benefit. When an oxpecker eats ticks living on the impala’s ear, both organisms benefit.


    Commensalism

    Commensalism

    Commensalism is a relationship in which one species benefits and the other species is not affected, such as a bird’s nest in a tree.


    Parasitism

    Parasitism

    Parasitism is a relationship in which one organism benefits and the other organism is harmed. The organism that benefits is called a parasite. The organism that is harmed is called the host. Fish lice are parasites that feed on the blood of a host fish.


    Fcat 2 0 life science review

    Big Idea 18: Matter and Energy TransformationsSC.8.L.18.1 Describe and investigate the process of photosynthesis, such as the roles of light, carbon dioxide, water and chlorophyll; production of food; release of oxygen.What Happens During Photosynthesis? Pg. 453

    • During photosynthesis, plants and some other organisms absorb energy from the sun and use the energy to convert carbon dioxide and water into sugars and oxygen.

    • Most photosynthesis takes place in the leaves of plants.

    • Photosynthesis can be thought of as taking place in two stages.

      • In the first stage, energy from sunlight is captured in the green pigment chlorophyll, which is found in the organelles known as chloroplasts.

      • Water that entered the chloroplasts is split into hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms.

      • The oxygen is given off as a waste product and the hydrogen is used in the next stage.


    Fcat 2 0 life science review

    Photosynthesis

    First Stage of Photosynthesis

    The first stage of photosynthesis powers the “energy engine” of the living world.

    Making Generalizations- What do you think this sentence means?

    __________________________________________________________________________________________________


    Stage 2 using energy to make food

    Stage 2: Using Energy to Make Food

    • In stage 2, hydrogen and carbon dioxide, which has entered the plant through small openings on the underside of the leaves, combine to form sugars.

    • Sugars are a type of carbohydrate

    • One important sugar produced is glucose. Its chemical formula is C6H12O6.

    • Cells use energy in glucose to carry out vital cell functions.

    • The other product of photosynthesis is oxygen gas (O2)

    • Oxygen exits a leaf through the openings in its underside.

    • Almost ALL of the oxygen in the Earth’s atmosphere is produced by living things through photosynthesis.


    Fcat 2 0 life science review

    Interactive Art – Photosynthesis pg. 454

    Producing Food

    The second stage of photosynthesis makes food for a plant. How can the information for Stage 1 and Stage 2 be completed?


    The photosynthesis equation pg 455

    The Photosynthesis Equation pg. 455

    (Glucose)

    MATERIALS OR REACTANTS YIELDPRODUCTS

    Notice that 6 molecules of carbon dioxide and 6 molecules of water are on the left side of the equation. These compounds are raw materials.

    1 molecule of glucose and 6 molecules of oxygen are on the right side.

    What happens to the sugars produced in photosynthesis?

    Plant cells use some of the sugars for food. The cells break down these molecules in a process that releases energy. This energy can then be used to carry out the plant’s functions, such as growing and making seeds. Some sugar molecules are made into cellulose for cell walls or are stored for later use.

    When you eat food from plants, like potatoes or carrots, you are eating the plant’s stored energy!

    • .


    Fcat 2 0 life science review

    SC.8.L.18.2 Describe and investigate how cellular respiration breaks down food to provide energy and releases carbon dioxide.What Happens During Cellular Respiration? Pg. 456

    After you eat, your body breaks down the food and releases the sugars in the food. Glucose is the most common sugar in foods.

    Cellular respiration is the process by which cells obtain energy from glucose.

    During cellular respiration, cells break down glucose and other molecules from food in the presence of oxygen, releasing energy.

    All living things continuously carry out cellular respiration in order to have a constant supply of energy.


    Storing and releasing energy pg 457 breathing and respiration

    Storing and Releasing Energy pg. 457Breathing and Respiration

    Storing and Releasing Energy

    Imagine you have money in a savings account. When you want to buy something you withdraw some money.

    Your body stores and uses energy in a similar way. When you eat you add energy to your body in the form of glucose which your body stores until you need to withdraw it for your cells when they need more energy.

    Breathing and Respiration

    Respiration means “breathing” – or moving air in and out of your lungs. Breathing brings in oxygen which is then carried to your cells for cellular respiration. Breathing also removes the waste products of cellular respiration from your body.


    The 2 stages of cellular respiration pg 458

    The 2 Stages of Cellular Respiration pg. 458

    • In the first stage of cellular respiration, which takes place in the cytoplasm of a cell, molecules of glucose are broken down into smaller molecules. Only a small amount of energy is released.

    • In the Second Stage, which takes place in the mitochondria, oxygen combines with the small molecules to produce a great deal of energy. The balanced equation for cellular respiration is :

    • Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis are thought to be opposite processes.


    What happens during fermentation pg 460

    What Happens During Fermentation? Pg. 460

    Fermentation is an energy-releasing process that does not require oxygen.

    During fermentation, cells release energy from food without using oxygen.

    Fermentation releases much less energy than cellular respiration does.

    alcoholic fermentation, produces alcohol, carbon dioxide, and a small amount of energy. It takes place in yeast and other single-celled organisms.

    Lactic acid fermentation produces lactic acid and occurs in the cells of muscles that must produce lots of energy with only a little available oxygen.


    Fcat 2 0 life science review

    SC.8.L.18.3 Construct a scientific model of the carbon cycle to show how matter and energy are continuously transferred within and between organisms and their physical environment.How Are Carbon, Oxygen, and Nitrogen Recycled?

    Carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen are essential building blocks

    in the bodies of living things.

    In ecosystems, the processes by which carbon and oxygen are recycled are linked. Producers, consumers, and decomposers all play roles in recycling carbon and oxygen.

    The carbon cycle is the process by which carbon moves within and between organisms and their physical environment.

    The oxygen cycle is the process by which oxygen moves through ecosystems.

    Human activities also cause the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to rise.


    Fcat 2 0 life science review

    Cycles of Matter- pg. 465

    Carbon and Oxygen Cycles

    Producers, consumers, and decomposers all play a role in recycling carbon and oxygen.

    When humans burn fuel or cut down trees, they increase Levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.


    The nitrogen cycle pg 466

    The Nitrogen Cycle – pg. 466

    Like carbon and oxygen, nitrogen is recycled in ecosystems. Most organisms can use nitrogen only after it has been “fixed,” or combined with other elements to form nitrogen-containing compounds.

    Nitrogen Fixation- The process of changing free nitrogen into usable nitrogen. Most nitrogen fixation is performed by certain kinds of bacteria. Some of these bacteria live in bumps called nodules on the roots of certain plants. These plants are legumes and include clover, beans, peas, alfalfa, peanuts, and some trees.

    The relationship between the legumes and the bacteria is an example of mutualism. Both the plants and the bacteria benefit from this relationship.

    The bacteria feed on the plants’ sugars, and the plants get nitrogen that they can use.


    Fcat 2 0 life science review

    The Nitrogen Cycle

    Nitrogen Cycle

    In the nitrogen cycle, free nitrogen from the air is fixed into nitrogen-containing compounds.

    Complete the statements using the following words: consumers decomposers producers

    free nitrogen

    fixed nitrogen


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