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Work-in-Progress (WIP) Basics. Presented by Ono & Chen CPAs, LLC May 29, 2014. Ono & Chen CPAs, LLC. Full service CPA firm specializing in assisting clients that work with the WIP Schedule . Over 95% of our clients are in construction and/or are government contractors.

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Work-in-Progress (WIP) Basics

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Work in progress wip basics

Work-in-Progress (WIP) Basics

Presented by Ono & Chen CPAs, LLC

May 29, 2014


Ono chen cpas llc

Ono & Chen CPAs, LLC

  • Full service CPA firm specializing in assisting clients that work with the WIP Schedule.

  • Over 95% of our clients are in construction and/or are government contractors.

  • We believe in educating our clients and working with them to help them get to the next level.


Agenda

Agenda

  • General Accounting Basics and How to Save Money on your CPA

  • Accrual vs. Cash Basis

  • Percentage of Completion Method of Accounting

  • -- Break Time --

  • What is the WIP Schedule?

  • Detailed WIP example


Work in progress wip basics

Let’s Begin!


General accounting basics

General Accounting Basics

Make sure to have the following in place:

  • Have a dedicated Accountant/Bookkeeper.

  • Use a CPA or tax preparer that you not only trust, but someone who understands your business and your industry.

  • Understand the requirements of your financial institution (bank) and insurance company.


General accounting basics1

General Accounting Basics

What do banks/insurance companies generally look at:

  • Overall Profitability

  • Balance Sheet including Working Capital

  • Cash Flow

  • Distributions to Owners

  • Timely Financial Reporting

  • Underbillings/Overbillings (WIP)

  • Poor Fade (WIP)


General accounting basics2

General Accounting Basics

Even if you trust your CPA completely, it is important to have a basic understanding of the financial statements:

  • Balance Sheet

  • Income Statement

  • Statement of Cash Flows

  • Statement of Retained Earnings

  • Work-in-Progress Schedule


How to save money on your cpa

How to Save Money on your CPA

Taking the following steps should enable you to start saving money on your CPA bill!


How to save money on your cpa1

How to Save Money on your CPA

  • Make sure to enter your adjusting journal entries (AJEs) promptly!

  • Don’t make any changes to prior years’ transactions!

  • Make sure to reconcile all bank and credit card accounts monthly!


How to save money on your cpa2

How to Save Money on your CPA

  • Keep account coding simple!

  • Don’t commingle accounts with your personal accounts!

  • Job costing 101 – All job costs should be coded to a job!


Cash vs accrual basis

Cash vs. Accrual Basis

  • What is the cash basis of accounting?

  • What is the accrual basis of accounting?

  • Why is it important?


Cash vs accrual basis1

Cash vs. Accrual Basis

Common accounts on an accrual basis financial statement that you won’t see on a cash basis financial statement

  • Accounts Receivable

  • Prepaid Expenses

  • Accounts Payable

  • Accrued Expenses

  • Bad Debt Expense


Percentage of completion method of accounting

Percentage-of-Completion Method of Accounting

  • What is it?

    • Investopedia definition: An accounting method in which the revenues and expenses of long-term contracts are recognized yearly as a percentage of the work completed during that year.

    • It is a revenue recognition method recognized by Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP).


Percentage of completion method of accounting1

Percentage-of-Completion Method of Accounting

  • What is a long-term contract?

    IRC Section 460(f)(1): In general, the term "long-term contract" means any contract for the manufacture, building, installation, or construction of property if such contract is not completed within the taxable year in which such contract is entered into.


Percentage of completion method of accounting2

Percentage-of-Completion Method of Accounting

  • Why is it important?

    • It is the most accurate way to measure revenues on uncompleted contracts.

    • More importantly, it is probably required by the bank, surety company, and even your friends at the SBA!


Percentage of completion method of accounting3

Percentage-of-Completion Method of Accounting

The most important schedule in financial statements using the percentage-of-completion method is the work-in-progress schedule!


Work in progress wip basics

-- Break Time --


What is the wip schedule

What is the WIP Schedule?

  • It is a supplementary schedule within the financial statements of a construction contractor (using the percentage-of-completion method) that shows a financial snapshot of a contractor’s uncompleted contracts at a specified time period.

  • The WIP schedule may be required by your surety/banks on a monthly, quarterly, semi-annual, or annual basis.


I f there s only one thing you learn from today s seminar remember that

If there’s only one thing you learn from today’s seminar, remember that ..

COST DRIVES REVENUES!!


Key individual components of the wip schedule

Key Individual Components of the WIP Schedule

  • Current contract price (including change orders)

  • Total estimated contract cost

  • Cost incurred to date (from inception)

  • Billings to date


Key formulas of a wip schedule

Key Formulas of a WIP Schedule

  • Estimated gross profit on completed contract

  • Gross profit percentage

  • Percentage complete

  • Revenues earned to date

  • Gross profit to date


Estimated gross profit

Estimated Gross Profit

Formula: Current contract price minus total estimated contract cost.

  • Example: If you sign a contract for $600,000 and you estimate that your total costs will be $400,000, what is your estimated gross profit?


Estimated gross profit1

Estimated Gross Profit

Formula: Current contract price minus total estimated contract cost.

  • $600,000 <-> $400,000

  • Answer: $200,000


Gross profit percentage

Gross Profit Percentage

Formula: Estimated gross profit divided by current contract price

  • Example: Using previous example (contract price of $600,000, total estimated costs of $400,000, estimated gross profit of $200,000), what is your gross profit percentage?


Gross profit percentage1

Gross Profit Percentage

Formula: Estimated gross profit divided by current contract price

  • $200,000 / $600,000

  • Answer: 33 1/3%


Percent complete key formula

Percent Complete (KEY FORMULA!)

Formula: Cost incurred to date divided by total estimated contract cost

  • Example: Using previous example (contract price of $600,000, total estimated costs of $400,000, estimated gross profit of $200,000), if your cost incurred to date is $40,000 on this job, what is your percent complete on this job?


Percent complete key formula1

Percent Complete (KEY FORMULA!)

Formula: Cost incurred to date divided by total estimated contract cost

  • $40,000 / $400,000

  • Answer: 10%


Revenues earned to date

Revenues Earned to Date

Formula: Percent complete times current contract price

  • Example: Using previous example (contract price of $600,000, cost incurred to date of $40,000, percent complete of 10%), how much of your revenues have you earned to date?


Revenues earned to date1

Revenues Earned to Date

Formula: Percent complete times current contract price

  • $600,000 x 10%

  • Answer: $60,000


Gross profit to date

Gross Profit to Date

Formula: Revenues earned to date minus cost incurred to date

  • Example: Using previous example (percent complete of 10%, revenues earned to date of $60,000, cost incurred to date of $40,000), what is your gross profit to date?


Gross profit to date1

Gross Profit to Date

Formula: Revenues earned to date minus cost incurred to date

  • $60,000 <->$40,000

  • Answer: $20,000


Wip example 1

WIP Example #1

  • Ono & Chen Builders secures a jobwith Hawaii DOT on 10/1/13with the following values:

    • Contract signed for $500,000

    • Project manager expects job will cost $250,000

    • As of 12/31/13, $50,000 of materials have been purchased for the job


Please calculate the following

Please calculate the following:

  • Estimated Gross Profit

  • Gross Profit Percentage

  • Percent Complete as of 12/31/13

  • Revenues Earned to Date as of 12/31/13

  • Gross Profit to Date as of 12/31/13


Answers

Answers:

  • Estimated Gross Profit = $250,000

  • Gross Profit Percentage = 50%

  • Percent Complete as of 12/31/13 = 20%

  • Revenues Earned to Date as of 12/31/13 = $100,000

  • Gross Profit to Date as of 12/31/13 = $50,000


Cost drives revenues

Cost Drives Revenues!!

  • Job costing is extremely important as revenues earned to date are driven by costs. Therefore, it is important that you properly code all your job costs!


Cost in excess of billings and billings in excess of cost

‘Cost in Excess of Billings’ and ‘Billings in Excess of Cost’

  • Sometimes referred to as overbillings and underbillings, it is the difference between revenues earned to date and amount billed to date to the customer.

  • These accounts are balance sheet accounts and are an offset against revenues.

    • Cost in Excess of Billings is an asset

    • Billings in Excess of Cost is a liability


Example

Example:

  • Ono & Chen Builders has earned $100,000 of revenues as of 12/31/13 on a sole source contract with Hawaii DOT and has billed Hawaii DOT $50,000 as of 12/31/13.

  • Ono & Chen Builders has underbilled Hawaii DOT and must record the following journal entry on 12/31/13:

    • DEBIT: Cost in Excess of Billings $50,000

    • CREDIT: Revenues $50,000


Example1

Example:

  • Ono & Chen Builders has earned $100,000 of revenues as of 12/31/13 on a sole source contract with Hawaii DOT but has billed Hawaii DOT $130,000 as of 12/31/13.

  • Ono & Chen has overbilled Hawaii DOT and must record the following journal entry:

    • DEBIT: Revenues $30,000

    • CREDIT: Billings in Excess of Cost $30,000


Cost in excess of billings billings in excess of costs

Cost in Excess of Billings/Billings in Excess of Costs

Note: The journal entries for ‘Cost in Excess of Billings’ and ‘Billings in Excess of Costs’ are very important. These entries directly offset revenues.


Work in progress wip basics

WIP Example


Common wip errors

Common WIP Errors

  • Calculation errors and missing cells

  • Estimated total cost not adjusted with change orders and other adjustments

  • Incorrect ‘cost in excess’ and ‘billings in excess’ journal entries


Thank you for coming

Thank you for coming!

Ono & Chen CPAs

www.onoandchen.com


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