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Key Points Chapter Four Shrum and Glisan. Special Methods of Instruction I Summer 2012 GRAD 210 Dr. Bowles, Instructor. Why learn another language early?. Provides increased time for learning opportunity to attain a functional level of proficiency. Optimal Age.

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Key points chapter four shrum and glisan

Key Points Chapter FourShrum and Glisan

Special Methods of Instruction I

Summer 2012

GRAD 210

Dr. Bowles, Instructor


Why learn another language early
Why learn another language early?

  • Provides

    • increased time for learning

    • opportunity to attain a functional level of proficiency


Optimal age
Optimal Age

Critical Period Hypothesis: Lenneberg, 1967

  • Between age 2 and puberty

  • Acquisition is predisposed due to brain malleability and unicameral nature of brain

  • Associative memory is stronger

  • Brain capacity is greater

  • Pronunciation and accent are more native-like

  • Higher level of competence in syntax, morphology, and grammar


Optimal age1
Optimal Age

  • Windows of Opportunity Hypothesis: Schacter, 1996

  • Syntax/Grammar:

    • accuracy acquired up to age 15

  • Language Proficiency:

    • Younger learners may reach higher levels of functional proficiency

  • Rate of Language Acquisition:

    • Adults have great advantage, but may be short-lived


Benefits
Benefits

  • Enhanced ability to engage in problem solving

  • Earlier reading skills

  • Higher scores on standardized tests and test of basic skills in English and math

  • Positively impact reading comprehension and vocab on standardized tests

  • More openness to other cultures

  • Increased literacy skills including guessing, predicting, hypothesizing, and sharing

  • More positive attitudes to school

  • Increased beliefs in ability to learn another language

  • Greater motivation for learning another language

  • Great self-confidence


The elementary school learner
The Elementary School Learner

  • Preschool (2-4)

    • Absorb languages effortlessly

    • Imitate speech sounds well

    • Self-centered

    • Short attention span

    • Need concrete experiencesand large motor skill activities

    • Benefit from tongue twisters and rhymes


The elementary school learner1
The Elementary School Learner

  • Primary (5-7)

    • Concrete experiences

    • Immediate goals

    • Imaginative stories and dramatic play

    • Learn through oral language

    • Short attention span

    • Need structure and routines


The elementary school learner2
The Elementary School Learner

  • Intermediate students (8-10)

    • Open to people of other cultures

    • Benefit from global emphasis

    • Understand cause and effect

    • Work well in groups

    • Learn well from binary opposites

    • Enjoy peer editing and scoring activities


The elementary school learner3
The Elementary School Learner

  • Early adolescent (11-14)

    • Most dramatic developmental changes

    • Need to assert independence

    • Need to develop own self-image

    • Need to be a part of a peer group

    • Benefit from positive relationships and self-image

    • Like to engage with subjects of interest to themselves

    • Like content-based units

    • Enjoy learning experiences with a strong affective component


Key points chapter three the elementary school learner glisan
Key Points Chapter ThreeThe Elementary School Learner Glisan

  • The mythic stage (4-10)

    • Make sense of the world through emotional categories

    • Desire to “feel” about what they are learning

    • Need for unambiguous meaning


Program models
Program Models

  • Range from language-focused to content-focused

    • Foreign Language in Elementary School (FLES)(traditional term) refers to programs taught 3-5 times per week for 20-60 minutes

    • Foreign Language Exploratory Programs (FLEX) introduces middle schoolers to one or several languages and cultures.

    • Immersion programs teach academic content in the foreign language


Program models1
Program Models

  • Sheltered instruction (SI)

    • Making content comprehensible for ELLs

  • SIOP: Sheltered Instruction Observation Protocol

    • Guides preparation, instruction, and assessment

  • SDAIE: Specially Designed Academic Instruction in English

    • Focuses on content knowledge specific vocabulary


Program models2
Program Models

  • Dual-language:

    • Teaches literacy and content in two languages

      • Immersion:

      • Total immersion

      • Two-way immersion

      • Partial immersion

  • Media-based learning:

    • Videotape

    • CDs

    • Computers

  • Distance learning:

    Occurs via interactive television


Strategies for elementary learners
Strategies for Elementary Learners

  • Plan thematically

    • Makes instruction more comprehensible

    • Focus on use of language to achieve goal

    • Provides a rich context for SBI

    • Offers a natural setting for task-based organization and narrative structure

    • Involves Ss in real language use in a variety of settings

    • Uses complex thinking and sophisticated language use

    • Avoids use of isolated exercises

    • Connects content, language, and culture goals to a “big idea”


Content based instruction
Content-based instruction

  • Consider nature of subject-content tasks

  • Consider target language abilities needed

  • Consider language needed

    • Content-obligatory: language needed to teach subject area concepts

    • Content-compatible: language integrated into curriculum

  • Use Cummins’ classification system to support language and content instruction

    • Context embedded or reduced?

    • Cognitively demanding or not?


Support for student learning
Support for student learning

  • Graphic organizers:

    • Semantic maps

    • Venn diagrams

  • Vocab acquisition:

    • Binding

    • TPR

  • Reading and Writing

    • Interpretive listening (Oller)

    • Language Experience Approach (presentational)


Support for student learning1
Support for student learning

  • Cooperative learning: (interpersonal)

    • Use paired interviews

    • Information gap activities

    • Jigsaw activities

    • Surveys

      Give students roles

      • Encourager

        Timekeeper

        Recorder

        Reporter


Support for student learning2
Support for student learning

  • Presentational speaking

    • Skits

    • Role play

    • Songs

  • Learning through culture

    • Products

    • Practices

  • Contextualized performance assessment

    • Suit the characteristics of your learners

    • Assess the abilities appropriate for your learners

    • Allow learners to show their best performance

    • Engage learners intellectually


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