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Red River. And The Métis. The Events at Red River. The Surveyors Arrive National Committee of the Métis The Lieutenant-Governor Arrives Forming a Provisional Government Negotiating Trouble in Fort Gary Trouble in Ottawa The Province of Manitoba Riel Leaves.

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Red River

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Red River

And The Métis


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The Events at Red River

  • The Surveyors Arrive

  • National Committee of the Métis

  • The Lieutenant-Governor Arrives

  • Forming a Provisional Government

  • Negotiating

  • Trouble in Fort Gary

  • Trouble in Ottawa

  • The Province of Manitoba

  • Riel Leaves


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Events leading up to Red River

  • January 1869 Government of Canada bought Rupert’s land from the Hudson’s Bay company.

  • The government was not allowed to take over until December 1869, almost a year later.

  • No one from the government had spoken to the people of the Red River Settlement.


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Rupert’s Land


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Red River


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Red River Valley


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The Surveyors Arrive

  • In the summer of 1869 surveyors arrived and started marking land into squares for settlers.

  • The problem was, the land that was being surveyed was already claimed by Métis families.

  • The Métis became worried and angry.

  • One man named Louis Riel who spoke for the Métis told the surveyors to stop, they did and left the area to avoid a fight.


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National Committee of the Métis

  • After the surveyors left the Métis from Red River got together to discuss the situation and they formed the National Committee of the Métis.

  • The Métis of Red River knew that the surveyors would be back and would be surveying the land for new settlers.


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National Committee of the Métis


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The Lieutenant-Governor Arrives

  • October 1869, William McDougall, the new Lieutenant Governor of the North West Territories arrives in Red River.

  • Canada had not taken over the territory yet.

  • A group of Métis stopped McDougall from entering Fort Garry, a key fort in the Red River area.

  • The Metis took over the fort and where able to control the surrounding area.


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William McDougall


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Forming a Provisional Government

  • The French and English speaking Métis in the Red River realized that they needed to form a government if they wanted to join confederation and have the same rights as other colonies.

  • In December 1869 the Métis formed a provisional government( a government that takes over until a final government is in place) and Louis Riel became the leader.


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Louis Riel


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Negotiating

  • John A. MacDonald decided it was better to negotiate with the Métis provisional government that to their land by force.

  • MacDonald sent messengers to talk to the Métis and the Métis in return sent three delegates( Persons authorized to act as representative for others) to Ottawa in February 1870.

  • The delegates brought with them the Métis Bill of Rights.


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John A. MacDonald


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Key Points of the Métis Bill of Rights

  • The Métis would keep their culture, including the use of both French and English in education and law.

  • The Métis would keep the right to their land.

  • The federal government would negotiate treaties with First Nations in the area


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Métis Traders


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Fort Garry


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Trouble in Fort Gary

  • Not all of the settlers of Fort Garry agreed with the provisional government.

  • Some wanted the Red River to become a English speaking Protestant province.

  • During January 1870 these people planed to attack the provisional government so Riel had them thrown in jail.

  • Riel agreed to release who promised to leave the Red River settlement or obey the provisional government.


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Trouble in Fort Gary-Pt2

  • Some men escaped and made plans to attack Fort Garry again, but they were caught and thrown back in jail.

  • One of the men, named Thomas Scott said he would escape and kill Louis Riel.

  • Under traditional Métis law Scott’s actions were serious offences so he was put on trail.

  • Scott was found guilty and was executed by firing squad on March 4th 1870.


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Thomas Scott


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Trouble in Ottawa

  • When English speaking Protestants in Ottawa found out about Thomas Scott’s execution they became very angry. They wanted Louis Riel to be punished.

  • Because many Métis were French speaking, the French supported Riel because they saw him as defending French culture.

  • John A. MacDonald decided not to arrest Riel so that he would not loose the French voters in the next election.

  • MacDonald was also looking for a peaceful solution.


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Louis Riel and other Rebel Leaders


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The Province of Manitoba

  • MacDonald and the Métis worked out an agreement-The Manitoba Act was created.

  • The province of Manitoba was created on the 15th of July 1870.


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Manitoba in 1870


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Key Point of the Manitoba Act

  • Manitoba could send four members to the House of Commons in Ottawa and two members to the Canadian Senate.

  • People in Manitoba could use either French or English in schools and government.

  • Approximately 560000 hectors of land was kept for Métis families.


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Riel Leaves

  • When Manitoba was created Riel was happy but he was concerned that he would be charged with Thomas Scott’s murder.

  • MacDonald arranged to have Riel leave the country to let things cool down, but Riel did not go.

  • Riel did have to go into hiding because a militia was after him and had decided to kill him. They did not succeed

  • In 1874 Riel was elected to the house of commons but was not allowed to take his seat. The new prime minister, Alexander Mackenzie, agreed to grant Riel amnesty if he left Canada for five years.

  • Riel chose to leave this time.


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