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LITERATURE REVIEW . TAIWO ODUGUWA MBBS, FWACP Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Yaba Lagos. OUTLINE. INTRODUCTION/DEFINITION AIMS LITERATURE SEARCH SOURCES OF MATERIALS GUIDELINES THE WRITE UP CONCLUSION. INTRODUCTION/ DEFINITION.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

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Literature review

LITERATURE REVIEW

TAIWO ODUGUWA

MBBS, FWACP

Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Yaba Lagos


Outline

OUTLINE

  • INTRODUCTION/DEFINITION

  • AIMS

  • LITERATURE SEARCH

  • SOURCES OF MATERIALS

  • GUIDELINES

  • THE WRITE UP

  • CONCLUSION


Introduction definition

INTRODUCTION/DEFINITION

  • A literature review (LR) can be defined as a piece of writing that supports, evaluates and critiques your research topic.

  • It involves the use of most relevant work in the subject area.

  • A LR is a form of essay writing, which is non opinionated nor argumentative.

  • It should not only demonstrate a good knowledge of relevant strands of literature

  • A LR may constitute an essential chapter of a thesis or dissertation.


Introduction cont d

INTRODUCTION(cont’d)

  • It should also show a critical assessment of literature with up to date references.

  • Although a summary of what you have read is contained in an LR, it is well beyond summarizing each article you have reviewed.

  • It involves extensive reading, analyzing available literature, critical appraisal of different works,

  • And then relating these researches to your own work.


Literature review

AIMS

  • A good LR aims to accomplish the following:

    • Define a research problem

    • Review the critical points of current knowledge.

    • Review theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic.


Literature search

LITERATURE SEARCH

  • Your search can be done manually or through electronic means.

  • Manual search can be done in,

    • The college library,

    • Central medical library,

    • University library,

    • FNPHY library.

  • For electronic search, there are different search engines,

    • E.g. Google, Yahoo.

    • There are also different websites that you don’t have to subscribe to for full texts.


  • Literature search cont d

    LITERATURE SEARCH (cont’d)

    • From search engine go to PUBMED.

    • Best option is to go through HINARI. (You can get more full journals this way).

    • Type in key words from topic or authors.

    • Going to related links can be helpful.

    • Download relevant articles.

    • And then save on computer.


    Sources of materials

    SOURCES OF MATERIALS

    • Useful sources of literature include

    • Published articles,

    • Abstracts of published articles,

    • Dissertations,

    • Conference presentations.


    Sources of materials1

    SOURCES OF MATERIALS

    • Other sources include,

    • Textbooks. Use is not advisable. WHY?

      • May be outdated,

      • They don’t provide references,

      • Usually reflects writer’s bias.

  • Unpublished work from the internet, (‘JUNK’). WHY?

    • They are unscientific, opinionated, lack references.


  • Guidelines

    GUIDELINES

    • Step 1: Choose a topic1

    • Step 2: Identify the literature to be reviewed2

    • Step 3: Analyse the literature3

    • Step 4: Summarize the literature4

    • Step 5: Synthesize the literature prior to writing5


    The write up

    THE WRITE UP

    • Your LR may be organized in 2 major ways:

      • Thematic (topical),

      • Chronological.

  • Others include,

    • Trend/pattern of events,

    • Publication chronology,

    • Methodological,

    • A blend/combination of the above.


  • Write up cont d

    WRITE UP (cont’d)

    • In thematic approach, the LR focuses on the topic/issues.

    • Each segment represents a part of a larger issue.

    • In chronological approach, it focuses on the chronological progression of the field, the literature or the idea, that is necessary to understand the LR.

    • Clarify the number of words before you write.

    • Organize your thoughts and gathered information, by creating an outline.


    Write up cont d1

    WRITE UP (cont’d)

    • You may refer to previous dissertations.

    • Make sure you develop a coherent essay.

    • Be selective. Make use of only relevant points.

    • Aim for a clear and cohesive essay that integrates the key details and communicates your point.

    • Use your own words to link ideas.

    • Start and end paragraphs with your own words.


    Write up cont d2

    WRITE UP (cont’d)

    • Don’t forget to include your references as you write along. Site references in uniform style.

    • The introduction should usher in the topic.

    • It may contain the definitions of key terms in the topic, historical background, a valid thesis.

    • Explain your line of argument (or thesis).

    • Include any other relevant information that you deem fit, as it relates to your topic.


    Write up cont d3

    WRITE UP (cont’d)

    • The body of the LR should address issues like

    • Definition of the problem

    • Prevalence of the problem, internationally and locally.

    • Etiology/ risk factors/ correlates and pattern or distribution.

    • Detection and diagnosis


    Write up cont d4

    WRITE UP (cont’d)

    • Treatment modalities.

    • Complications

    • And outcome.

    • And then the conclusion which is a summary of your LR.


    Write up cont d5

    WRITE UP (cont’d)

    • At the end of the day, a well written LR should have answered certain key questions,

    • What is the nature of the problem? Is it of significant public health importance?

    • What is the extent or magnitude of the problem.

    • What are the effects of the problem on public health?


    Write up cont d6

    WRITE UP (cont’d)

    • Make sure you,

      • Avoid technical terms, slangs or abbreviations.

      • Use simple sentences.

      • Be careful while paraphrasing.

      • Avoid common errors of punctuation and grammar

      • Link your ideas in a sensible sequence without repetitions or discontinuities.

      • Revise and try to perfect your write up.

      • Get feed back on your article from colleagues.


    Conclusion

    CONCLUSION

    • The LR forms an essential part of your research work.

    • And as such it should not be done in a hurry.

    • Reading wide is key to writing a good LR

    • Don’t feel discouraged, writing a good LR, comes with practice.


    Guidelines 1

    GUIDELINES - 1

    • Step 1

      • Decide on a topic.

      • May be an area of individual interest,

      • Or latest area of interest in research,

      • May decide on doing something novel,

      • Or decide to do something simple.


    Guidelines 2

    GUIDELINES - 2

    • Step 2:

      • Identify the literature that you will review

      • Familiarize your self with data bases.

      • Redefine your topic if needed.

      • Be sure to identify landmark studies (gives you a good frame work).

      • Transfer your references into a separate file/notepad.


    Guidelines 3

    GUIDELINES - 3

    • Step 3:

    • Analyze the literature.

      • Have an overview of articles, focus more on abstracts, introductions and conclusions.

      • Group articles into categories; (into topics and sub topics, chronologically).

      • Take notes by defining key terms, note key statistics, note emphasis, strengths and weaknesses, identify major gaps, identify major trends and patterns, identify relationships among studies, evaluate references for currency and coverage, remain focused.


    Guidelines 4

    GUIDELINES - 4

    • Step 4:

    • Summarize the literature.

      • This may be done in a tabular form.

      • You may also summarize manually in a jotter.

      • For e.g., you may summarize,

      • Definitions of key terms and concepts,

      • Research methods,

      • Summary of research findings.


    Guidelines 5

    GUIDELINES - 5

    • Step 5:

    • Synthesize the literature prior to writing

      • Consider your purpose and voice,

      • Consider how to re assemble your notes,

      • Create a topic outline,

      • Within topic headings, note differences among studies,

      • Look for obvious gaps needing research,

      • Plan to suggest specific direction for future research.


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