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PHENOLOGY. Impacts of Spring Phenology on Carbon and Energy Fluxes in the Midwest and Northeast USA. Research Contributions. Phenology data from R. Ahas, J. Caprio, X. Chen, DWD, A. Menzel, J. O’Keefe, and WPS

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PHENOLOGY

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Phenology

PHENOLOGY

Impacts of Spring Phenology on Carbon and Energy Fluxes in the Midwest and Northeast USA


Research contributions

Research Contributions

  • Phenology data from R. Ahas, J. Caprio, X. Chen, DWD, A. Menzel, J. O’Keefe, and WPS

  • Flux data from S. Wofsy/Harvard Forest (1992-2000), Lamont ARM (1994-1998), K. Davis/Park Falls/ WLEF (1997-1999), S. Grimmond/H. Schmid/ Morgan Monroe (1999-2000) , and D. Baldocchi/ K. Wilson/Oak Ridge (1996-2000)

  • Phenology compositing technique adapted from a method developed by X. Chen


Research goals

RESEARCH GOALS

  • Dynamic Biosphere Models

  • Terrestrial Biosphere Change Detection

  • Improve Understanding of Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions


Integrated approach

Integrated Approach

  • Satellite Observations (AVHRR-NDVI)

  • Indicator Species Phenology

  • Native Species Phenology


Lilac first leaf

Lilac First Leaf


Lilac first bloom

Lilac First Bloom


Spring indices si bloom model performance 3 plant average model output compared to lilac bloom data

Spring Indices (SI) Bloom Model Performance(3 plant average model output compared to lilac bloom data)


Si bloom comparison to european plant data

SI Bloom Comparison to European Plant Data


Comparisons to harvard forest native trees

Comparisons to Harvard Forest Native Trees


Comparisons to harvard forest native trees1

Comparisons to Harvard Forest Native Trees


Comparisons to uw milwaukee native trees

Comparisons to UW-Milwaukee Native Trees


Spring index comparison to usa sos dates

Spring Index Comparison to USA SOS Dates


Diurnal range change with first leaf

Diurnal Range Change with First Leaf


Station locations

Station Locations


Spring index model output for selected stations

Spring Index Model Output for Selected Stations


Flux changes relative to first bloom spring index harvard forest ma 1992 2000

Flux Changes Relative to First Bloom Spring IndexHarvard Forest, MA 1992-2000


Net ecosystem exchange harvard forest ma 1992 2000

Net Ecosystem ExchangeHarvard Forest, MA 1992-2000


Comparative latent minus sensible heat flux

Comparative Latent minus Sensible Heat Flux


Comparative net ecosystem exchange

Comparative Net Ecosystem Exchange


Comparative net ecosystem exchange annual downturn rates

Comparative Net Ecosystem ExchangeAnnual “Downturn” Rates


Comparative net radiation

Comparative Net Radiation


Par relative to first bloom spring index harvard forest ma 1992 2000

PAR Relative to First Bloom Spring IndexHarvard Forest, MA 1992-2000


Flux changes at uwm field station wi 2002

Flux Changes at UWM Field Station, WI 2002


Harvard forest native species

Harvard Forest Native Species

  • K. latifolia mountain laurel

  • Lyonia ligustrina maleberry

  • Nemopanthus mucronata mountain holly

  • Nyssa sylvatica black gum

  • Pinus strobus eastern white pine

  • Populus tremuloides trembling aspen*

  • Prunus serotina black cherry*

  • Quercus alba white oak

  • Q. rubra northern red oak*

  • Q. velutina black oak

  • Rhododendron roseum mountain azalea

  • Sambucus pubens red elderberry

  • Tsuga canadensis eastern hemlock

  • Vaccinium corymbosum highbush blueberry

  • Viburnum alnifolium hobblebush

  • V. cassinoides witherod

  • *= also observed at UWM Field Station

  • Acer pensylvanicum striped maple

  • A. rubrum red maple

  • A. saccharum sugar maple*

  • Amelanchier spp serviceberry, shadbush*

  • Aronia spp chokeberry

  • Betula alleghaniensis yellow birch*

  • B. lenta black birch

  • B. papyrifera paper birch*

  • B. populifolia gray birch

  • Castanea dentata American chestnut

  • Cornus alternifolia alt.-leaved dogwood*

  • Crataegus spp hawthorn*

  • Fagus grandifolia American beech*

  • Fraxinus americana white ash*

  • Hamamelis virginiana witch-hazel*

  • Ilex verticillata winterberry, black alder

  • Kalmia angustifolia sheep laurel


Flux changes relative to first bloom spring index harvard forest ma

Flux Changes Relative to First Bloom Spring IndexHarvard Forest, MA


Harvard forest carbon dioxide flux

Harvard Forest Carbon Dioxide Flux


Phenological changes near cheas sites

Phenological Changes near ChEAS sites


Phenological regions in wisconsin source zhao 2002

Phenological Regions in Wisconsin(Source: Zhao 2002)


Phenology

ISI First Bloom for NP Region, WI compared to SI Indices for 475516(ISI from Zhao and Schwartz, in progress)


Proposed fluxnet phenological phases coniferous sites

Proposed FLUXNET Phenological Phases(coniferous sites)

  • NA (Needle appearance)

  • CF (Flowering)


Proposed fluxnet phenological phases deciduous sites

Proposed FLUXNET Phenological Phases(deciduous sites)

  • SL (Sprouting of leaves)

  • UL (Beginning of the unfolding of leaves)

  • L95 (95% of leaves at 95%+ of final size)

  • BF (Beginning of flowering)

  • FR (Fruit ripe)

  • CL (Coloring of leaves)


Proposed fluxnet phenological phases grassland sites

Proposed FLUXNET Phenological Phases(grassland sites)

  • IG (Initiation of growth, tiller emergence)

  • IF (Initiation of flowering, anthesis)

  • DF (Duration of flowering, anthesis)

  • PS (Peak seedheads)

  • LC (Leaves in canopy > 90% dry)


Global phenological monitoring

Global Phenological Monitoring

  • European Phenology Network

  • FLUXNET phenology protocol

  • GLOBE phenology protocols

  • Canada Plantwatch

  • USA phenology network plans


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