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PHENOLOGY. Impacts of Spring Phenology on Carbon and Energy Fluxes in the Midwest and Northeast USA. Research Contributions. Phenology data from R. Ahas, J. Caprio, X. Chen, DWD, A. Menzel, J. O’Keefe, and WPS

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Phenology

PHENOLOGY

Impacts of Spring Phenology on Carbon and Energy Fluxes in the Midwest and Northeast USA


Research contributions
Research Contributions

  • Phenology data from R. Ahas, J. Caprio, X. Chen, DWD, A. Menzel, J. O’Keefe, and WPS

  • Flux data from S. Wofsy/Harvard Forest (1992-2000), Lamont ARM (1994-1998), K. Davis/Park Falls/ WLEF (1997-1999), S. Grimmond/H. Schmid/ Morgan Monroe (1999-2000) , and D. Baldocchi/ K. Wilson/Oak Ridge (1996-2000)

  • Phenology compositing technique adapted from a method developed by X. Chen


Research goals
RESEARCH GOALS

  • Dynamic Biosphere Models

  • Terrestrial Biosphere Change Detection

  • Improve Understanding of Atmosphere-Biosphere Interactions


Integrated approach
Integrated Approach

  • Satellite Observations (AVHRR-NDVI)

  • Indicator Species Phenology

  • Native Species Phenology




Spring indices si bloom model performance 3 plant average model output compared to lilac bloom data
Spring Indices (SI) Bloom Model Performance(3 plant average model output compared to lilac bloom data)









Spring index model output for selected stations
Spring Index Model Output for Selected Stations



Net ecosystem exchange harvard forest ma 1992 2000
Net Ecosystem ExchangeHarvard Forest, MA 1992-2000




Comparative net ecosystem exchange annual downturn rates
Comparative Net Ecosystem ExchangeAnnual “Downturn” Rates



Par relative to first bloom spring index harvard forest ma 1992 2000
PAR Relative to First Bloom Spring IndexHarvard Forest, MA 1992-2000


Flux changes at uwm field station wi 2002
Flux Changes at UWM Field Station, WI 2002


Harvard forest native species
Harvard Forest Native Species

  • K. latifolia mountain laurel

  • Lyonia ligustrina maleberry

  • Nemopanthus mucronata mountain holly

  • Nyssa sylvatica black gum

  • Pinus strobus eastern white pine

  • Populus tremuloides trembling aspen*

  • Prunus serotina black cherry*

  • Quercus alba white oak

  • Q. rubra northern red oak*

  • Q. velutina black oak

  • Rhododendron roseum mountain azalea

  • Sambucus pubens red elderberry

  • Tsuga canadensis eastern hemlock

  • Vaccinium corymbosum highbush blueberry

  • Viburnum alnifolium hobblebush

  • V. cassinoides witherod

  • *= also observed at UWM Field Station

  • Acer pensylvanicum striped maple

  • A. rubrum red maple

  • A. saccharum sugar maple*

  • Amelanchier spp serviceberry, shadbush*

  • Aronia spp chokeberry

  • Betula alleghaniensis yellow birch*

  • B. lenta black birch

  • B. papyrifera paper birch*

  • B. populifolia gray birch

  • Castanea dentata American chestnut

  • Cornus alternifolia alt.-leaved dogwood*

  • Crataegus spp hawthorn*

  • Fagus grandifolia American beech*

  • Fraxinus americana white ash*

  • Hamamelis virginiana witch-hazel*

  • Ilex verticillata winterberry, black alder

  • Kalmia angustifolia sheep laurel






ISI First Bloom for NP Region, WI compared to SI Indices for 475516(ISI from Zhao and Schwartz, in progress)


Proposed fluxnet phenological phases coniferous sites
Proposed FLUXNET Phenological Phases(coniferous sites)

  • NA (Needle appearance)

  • CF (Flowering)


Proposed fluxnet phenological phases deciduous sites
Proposed FLUXNET Phenological Phases(deciduous sites)

  • SL (Sprouting of leaves)

  • UL (Beginning of the unfolding of leaves)

  • L95 (95% of leaves at 95%+ of final size)

  • BF (Beginning of flowering)

  • FR (Fruit ripe)

  • CL (Coloring of leaves)


Proposed fluxnet phenological phases grassland sites
Proposed FLUXNET Phenological Phases(grassland sites)

  • IG (Initiation of growth, tiller emergence)

  • IF (Initiation of flowering, anthesis)

  • DF (Duration of flowering, anthesis)

  • PS (Peak seedheads)

  • LC (Leaves in canopy > 90% dry)


Global phenological monitoring
Global Phenological Monitoring

  • European Phenology Network

  • FLUXNET phenology protocol

  • GLOBE phenology protocols

  • Canada Plantwatch

  • USA phenology network plans


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