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Pima Master Gardeners and USA-NPN. Introduction to Phenology. Tucson Phenology Monitoring Project. Opening Activity. Using the card you have been given, find others in the group with the same SPECIES NAME.

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slide1

Pima Master Gardeners and USA-NPN

Introduction to Phenology

Tucson Phenology Monitoring Project

slide2

Opening Activity

Using the card you have been given, find others in the group with the same SPECIES NAME.

Once you are in a group of 3 or 4, discuss what you know about the life cycles listed on the cards.

Share your answers with the class.

slide3

Phenology Observation Program

  • Overview
    • Intro to Phenology
    • USA National Phenology Network
    • Research and Education
    • Site-based Programs
    • Using Nature’s Notebook
    • USA-NPN and Master Gardeners
slide4

Phenology Observation

Do you keep a journal?

What do you notice about the seasons, here versus another part of the country?

What is different about this year?

slide5

Intro to Phenology

Phenology, in short, is a “horizontal science” which transects all ordinary biological professions. Whoever sees the land as a whole is likely to have an interest in it.

Phenology is:

Phenology refers to recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, or phenophases, such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds.

Leopold, A., and S.E. Jones. 1947. A phenological record for Sauk and Dane Counties, Wisconsin, 1935-1945. Ecological Monographs 17(1):81-122.

slide6

Intro to Phenology

  • What is phenology?
  • Nature’s calendar
  • Blooms and buds
  • Hibernation, migration emergence
  • Easy to observe from leaf to globe
  • Why does it matter?
  • Growth rate and range
  • Animal – plant –climate relationships
  • Management strategies
  • Leading indicator of climate change impacts
slide7
Applications of Phenology Data

Resource management

Conservation

Agriculture

Ecosystem services

Science

Health

Decision-support tools

Value of phenology

Phenology data helps us understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to environmental variation and climate change.

slide8

Intro to Phenology Observation

  • Who observes phenology?
  • Famous historical figures
  • Historical data sets
  • Gardeners
  • Youth
  • Scientists
  • How can our community be
  • involved?
  • Science and climate literacy
  • Outdoor experiences
  • Participate in scientific process
slide9

Intro to Phenology

  • Phenology and Climate Change
    • Research, spring timing and range
  • Types of observed shifts
  • Timing of migratory bird arrivals
  • (Root et al. 2003, Gordo 2007)
  • Timing of animal emergence
  • (Inouye et al. 2000, Parmesan et al. 2003)
  • Timing of egg laying
  • (Brown et al. 1999)
  • Changing Migration Patterns

1977: 3,000 Brant

overwintered in Alaska

Today: 40,000 overwinter

  • (Ward et al. 2009)
slide10

Intro to Phenology

  • Phenology and Climate Change
    • Research, spring timing and range
  • 43 species at Walden Pond bloom 7 days earlier than in Thoreau’s time
  • Blueberries flower 21 days earlier
  • 27% of the species are no longer there
  • Importance of legacy datasets
  • (Primack and Rushing, 2012)

Species

and Ecosystems

influenced by

global environmental change

Photo by Scot Miller

slide11

English Oak

Winter Moth

Pied Flycatcher

Intro to Phenology

  • Phenology and Climate Change
    • Research, spring timing and range
    • A three- way mismatch

EARLIER

EARLIER

SAME TIME EACH YEAR

Both et al. 2006 Nature

slide12

Intro to Phenology

  • Research needs
  • Long-term, accessible data set
  • Interactive tools for visualization
  • Plant and animal species data for multiple locations
  • Focal species
  • Results
  • Better understanding of changes
  • Analysis of impacts
  • Communication
slide13

Phenology Observation Program

  • Overview
    • Intro to Phenology
  • USA National Phenology Network
    • Research and Education
    • Site-based Programs
    • Using Nature’s Notebook
    • USA-NPN and Master Gardeners
slide14

USA National Phenology Network

Primary goal

To encourage observation of phenological events and understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to environmental variation and climate change.

Mission

Make phenology data, models and related information available to scientists, resource managers and the public.

Encourage people of all ages and backgrounds to observe and record phenology.

A national network of integrated phenological observations across space and time.

slide15

USA National Phenology Network

Network Tools

Standard methods for data collection

Basic and applied research

Decision-support tools

Education and outreach

Nature’s Notebook

Legacy Datasets

Citizen Science Project

slide16

USA-National Phenology Network

  • What Is Citizen Science?
  • Engages volunteers
  • Expands ability of scientists
  • Teaches scientific methods
  • Public and professional scientists
  • Research teams
  • Educate and generate data

Citizen Science Info

  • www.birds.cornell.edu/citsci/about
  • www.CitSci.org
  • www.scistarter.org
slide17

USA National Phenology Network

  • Public Participation in Scientific Research (PPSR) From Cornell Lab of Ornithology
      • Citizen science, volunteer monitoring and other forms of organized research projects in which members of the public engage are included in the field
  • Meet science & research goals
  • Invasive plants, birds, bees/pollinators, earthquakes, infectious disease, astronomy, weather, wildlife, acid rain, oil spills, wildlife, rainfall, archaeology, pollution, “old weather”
slide19
A Multi-taxa, National-scale Phenology System

What’s Nature’s Notebook?

A national plant and animal phenology observation program.

Thousands of passionate citizen scientists across the US share their observations with researchers, resource managers and others who use this information to understand our changing planet, make scientific discoveries, and create new tools.

slide20

USA National Phenology Network

  • Online monitoring system
  • 311 vetted plant species
  • 160 vetted animal species
  • Core protocols
  • Abundance & intensity reporting
  • Metadata & QA/QC methods
  • Dynamic data visualizations
  • Possible species additions by request
slide21

USA National Phenology Network

311 plant species and 160 animal species

3160 observers at 4412 sites observing 5459 individual organisms

slide22

USA National Phenology Network

Phenology Monitoring Methods

  • Event Monitoring
  • Captures
  • First instance of phenologicalevent
  • Phenology of species with predictable series of events
  • Does not capture
  • Sampling Frequency
  • Estimated error in event date
  • Unusual events
  • Repeat events
  • Duration of phenological stages
slide23
Abundance and Intensity

Captures

Sampling frequency

Error around date estimate

Absence

Unusual events

Multiple occurrences of a phenophase in one year

Phenophase duration

USA National Phenology Network

Phenology Monitoring Methods

slide24

Status

Status & Abundance

USA National Phenology Network

Phenology Monitoring Methods

Activity

Reproduction

Development

Event

Day of year

slide25

USA National Phenology Network

USA-NPN Education Program Goals

Science and Climate Literacy

Science-Nature-Self Relationships

The Integration of Science and Education

Engage observers with Nature’s Notebook and data collection through providing directed scientific outdoor experiences.

slide26

USA National Phenology Network

  • USA-NPN Education Program
    • Connect people to nature
      • - Nature Deficit Disorder
    • Agency engagement programs
    • Formal/informal education
    • Climate and science literacy
    • Move beyond \'gloom and doom\' of climate change
slide27

Nature Journal Activity

  • Nature Journals
  • Include basic information: date, time, weather, species
  • Text or sketches
  • Topography, layout, land alteration
  • Science, reference later
  • Phenology journals can be seasonal observations or just dates on a calendar
slide28

USA National Phenology Network

Take a Rest!!

15 minute break

slide29

Phenology Observation Program

  • Overview
    • Intro to Phenology
    • USA National Phenology Network
  • Research and Education
    • Site-based Programs
    • Using Nature’s Notebook
    • USA-NPN and Master Gardeners
slide30

Research and Education

Climate Change

Climate Change

  • Recent and unusual rise in global temperature
  • Understand plant & animal response
  • Record early/late spring & fall events
  • Ecosystem shift
  • Multiple and long-term observations
slide31

Research and Education

Combined Techniques

Satellite/Remote Sensing

Photographs

Hand-recorded data

slide32

Research and Education

Data visualization

slide33

Research and Education

Can we detect the anomalously warm spring of 2010 in the NE US on organismal phenology?

  • NPN dataset - Opportunity to broaden investigation to full ROI (St Louis, MO to NE Maine) (Fredl et al, 2012. Unpublished.)
    • Common deciduous forest over-story trees, multi-species
    • Data from 2009-2011 only
    • 100s of sites, though time-series variable (sometimes sparse or discontinuous)
  • NPN data visualization tool
  • Emerging leaves or first leaf date (FLD)
    • Q: Advanced FLD in 2010 relative to 2009 and 2011?
slide34

Research and Education

Can we detect the anomalously warm spring of 2010 in the NE US on organismal phenology?

  • Problematic because we collective consider
    • Multiple sites
    • Multiple individuals
    • Multiple observers
  • But, we are interested in population-level effects…
slide35

Research and Education

  • USA-NPN Resources
  • Available for Facilitation
  • Volunteer training materials
  • Workshop agendas and powerpoints, brochures, templates
  • Curriculum for upper middle, high school and adult programs
  • Online training materials
  • Site-based resources
  • Phenology trail and garden templates

USA-NPN Education Program Staff can assist with program design & implementation on the Refuges.

slide36

Research and Education

  • Phenology is a teaching tool – can teach scientific process
  • Citizen science programs can assist with limited staffing
  • Volunteers or partnerships with agencies (Extension) can make monitoring more robust
slide37

Phenology Observation Program

  • Overview
    • Intro to Phenology
    • USA-NPN and USFWS Partnership
    • Research and Education
  • Site-based Programs
    • Using Nature’s Notebook
    • USA-NPN and Master Gardeners
slide38

Site-based Programs

  • Workshops & Tours
  • How to observe
  • Local species talks
  • Campus plant and tree walks
  • Demonstration gardens
  • Master Gardener Class with Phenology chapter
  • Phenology Trails and Phenology Gardens
  • Neighborhood Association Partnerships
slide40

Site-based Programs

Tucson Phenology

Trail

Campus

Arboretum

National

Phenology

Network

Pima

Extension

Office

BioSphere2

Santa Rita

Experimental

Range

Sam Hughes Neighborhood

slide43

Site-based Programs

A=Ocotillo

B=Palo Verde

C=Velvet Mesquite

D=Velvet Mesquite

E=Ocotillo

F=Saguaro

G=Ocotillo

H=Creosote

I=Creosote

J=Jojoba

slide45

Site-based Programs

Wildlife Refuges using Nature’s Notebook

The Kenai Peninsula is under pressure from a drying, warming climate. Local residents and seasonal visitors can help scientists study the ways the forest, wetland and animal populations are adapting to these changes by recording data, spreading the word about their observations, and reducing the negative impacts to our special ecosystems on the Kenai.

Leah Eskelin, Park Ranger

Kenai Peninsula NWR, Alaska

  • Ventura Fish and Wildlife Office
  • Install gardens, host workshops, conduct monitoring
  • Train volunteers
slide47

Site-based Programs

Cooperative Extension and Nature’s Notebook

"Signs of the Seasons: A Maine Phenology Project”, recruits and trains volunteers to observe and record phenological data. One of the goals of the program is to broaden general knowledge of climate change by providing citizens with the tools to gather climate change data themselves - in other words it\'s a citizen-science initiative.”

–Mao Teng Lin, USFWS Gulf Coast of Maine

Gulf of Maine Coastal Program

  • Implementing a Phenology Monitoring Network, in partnership with local groups to track Florida species response to climate change.
  • Workshops, school groups, curriculum, botanical gardens
slide48

Site-based Programs

  • Backyard observations
  • Trail observations
  • Share your data set
  • Data analysis
  • Join the conversation!

“Having a reason and a mechanism for paying attention to the natural world around me enriches my life.” — Hans

slide49

Dichotomous Key Activity – 20 mins

Dichotomous means “divided into two parts” and a dichotomous

key offers two choices at each step leading to the identity of the object.

Used to identify things based on observable characteristics.

Using the traditional dichotomous key, one should be able to pick up any

object included in the key and follow the steps to arrive at its identity.

Not tennis shoes

Emily’s shoe

Shoes with laces

White

Helen’s shoe

Tennis shoes

Orange

John’s shoe

Shoes

Not sandals

Ryan’s shoe

Shoes without laces

Sandals

Marco’s shoe

slide50

Dichotomous Key Activity – 20 mins

Not tennis shoes

Emily’s shoe

Shoes with laces

White

Helen’s shoe

Tennis shoes

Orange

John’s shoe

Shoes

Not sandals

Ryan’s shoe

Shoes without laces

Sandals

Marco’s shoe

1. a. shoes with laces…………………………………….go to #2

b. shoes without laces…………………………………go to #4

2. a. not tennis shoes……………………………………..Emily’s shoe

b. tennis shoes…………………………………………go to #3

3. a. white………………………………………………...Helen’s shoe

b. orange……………………………………………….John’s shoe

4. a. not sandals…………………………………………..Ryan’s shoe

b. sandals………………………………………………Marco’s shoe

slide51

Dichotomous Key Activity – 20 mins

Dichotomous Key

with local species

20 mins– half hour

slide52

Phenology Observation Program

  • Overview
    • Intro to Phenology
    • USA-NPN and USFWS Partnership
    • Research and Education
    • Site-based Programs
  • Using Nature’s Notebook
    • USA-NPN and Master Gardeners
slide54

Using Nature’s Notebook

Five Steps:

  • Select and delineate a site
  • Select plant and animal species
  • Tag individual plants
  • Record your observations of animals and plants
  • Report your data online

www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines

slide55

Using Nature’s Notebook

  • Select and delineate a site
  • A site is the area within which you will look for your species you choose to observe. When you select a site, such as your yard or a nearby natural area, consider these guidelines:
  • Convenience and easily accessible.
  • Representative location of the environmental conditions for your area. Flat, gentle slope..

www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines

slide56

Using Nature’s Notebook

  • Select and delineate a site
  • Uniform habitat
  • Appropriate size - < 15 acres
    • Plants and animals?
    • Your backyard
  • PROPER PERMISSION!
    • Agency may already be participating
    • No trespassing
  • More than 20 feet from building

www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines

slide57

Using Nature’s Notebook

  • Select Plant and Animal Species
  • Choose from list of recommended (vetted) species
  • Calibration species
    • Ecological importance
    • Big-picture
  • Proper identification
  • Data quality!
  • One - three plants for variation
  • Use comments
  • Tag your plants!
  • Ease of location

www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines

slide58

Using Nature’s Notebook

  • Record Observations
  • To make observations, you will need:
  • Phenophasedefinitions and instructions
  • Datasheets, clipboard, pencil: You can download and print a datasheet for each plant or animals from the profile page
  • Binoculars (optional)

www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines

slide59

Using Nature’s Notebook

  • Record Observations
  • To make observations, you will need:
  • Phenophasedefinitions and instructions

www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines

slide60

Using Nature’s Notebook

  • Record Observations
  • YES
  • NO
  • UNCERTAIN
  • No record if you did not check

www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines

slide61

Using Nature’s Notebook

www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines

slide62

Using Nature’s Notebook

Frequency of Observations

As often as possible

At least once a week

All observations are valuable!

  • Time of Day
  • Convenient
  • Consistent
  • Daytime

Keep looking for a phenophase even if it has ended

www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines

slide63

Using Nature’s Notebook

Why?

Phenophases may be triggered by moisture and not just temperature

Negative data is valuable

Conditions may change rapidly

More data = better analysis

Climate shift may be changing when events occur

www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines

slide64

Using Nature’s Notebook

  • Plants: repeat observations of the same individual plants
  • Animals: create a checklist for your site, look and listen for all species each time you visit
slide65

Using Nature’s Notebook

Enter Observations Online

Create your account

Register your site

Register your plants

Create your animal checklist

www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines

slide66

Using Nature’s Notebook

  • Create an account
  • Click on #3
slide69

Using Nature’s Notebook

Creating a site at home

slide71

Using Nature’s Notebook

  • Resources available to you:
  • Online training materials for Nature’s Notebook at home
  • Volunteer/community engagement tips
  • Plans for implementation of Phenology Gardens and Trails with corresponding curriculum
  • Assistance from the USA-NPN Education Specialist on how to tailor Nature’s Notebook to your needs
slide72

Phenology Observation Program

  • Overview
    • Intro to Phenology
    • USA-NPN and USFWS Partnership
    • Research and Education
    • Site-based Programs
    • Using Nature’s Notebook
  • USA-NPN & Master Gardeners
slide73

Assignment

  • Know your Native Plants!

Jojoba

Saguaro

Creosote bush

Velvet mesquite

Honey mesquite

Desert ironwood

Blue paloverde

Yellow paloverde

slide75

You’re invited to

connect with USA-NPN…

Sign up for a phenology e-newsletter (quarterly)

Join the Nature’s Notebook community and become an observer: Contribute to science while having fun!

Discover new tools and resources for work or play

LoriAnne Barnett

USA-NPN

Education Coordinator

[email protected]

Thank you!

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