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Pima Master Gardeners and USA-NPN. Introduction to Phenology. Tucson Phenology Monitoring Project. Opening Activity. Using the card you have been given, find others in the group with the same SPECIES NAME.

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Tucson phenology monitoring project

Pima Master Gardeners and USA-NPN

Introduction to Phenology

Tucson Phenology Monitoring Project


Tucson phenology monitoring project

Opening Activity

Using the card you have been given, find others in the group with the same SPECIES NAME.

Once you are in a group of 3 or 4, discuss what you know about the life cycles listed on the cards.

Share your answers with the class.


Tucson phenology monitoring project

Phenology Observation Program

  • Overview

    • Intro to Phenology

    • USA National Phenology Network

    • Research and Education

    • Site-based Programs

    • Using Nature’s Notebook

    • USA-NPN and Master Gardeners


Tucson phenology monitoring project

Phenology Observation

Do you keep a journal?

What do you notice about the seasons, here versus another part of the country?

What is different about this year?


Tucson phenology monitoring project

Intro to Phenology

Phenology, in short, is a “horizontal science” which transects all ordinary biological professions. Whoever sees the land as a whole is likely to have an interest in it.

Phenology is:

Phenology refers to recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, or phenophases, such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds.

Leopold, A., and S.E. Jones. 1947. A phenological record for Sauk and Dane Counties, Wisconsin, 1935-1945. Ecological Monographs 17(1):81-122.


Tucson phenology monitoring project

Intro to Phenology

  • What is phenology?

  • Nature’s calendar

  • Blooms and buds

  • Hibernation, migration emergence

  • Easy to observe from leaf to globe

  • Why does it matter?

  • Growth rate and range

  • Animal – plant –climate relationships

  • Management strategies

  • Leading indicator of climate change impacts


Tucson phenology monitoring project

Applications of Phenology Data

Resource management

Conservation

Agriculture

Ecosystem services

Science

Health

Decision-support tools

Value of phenology

Phenology data helps us understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to environmental variation and climate change.


Tucson phenology monitoring project

Intro to Phenology Observation

  • Who observes phenology?

  • Famous historical figures

  • Historical data sets

  • Gardeners

  • Youth

  • Scientists

  • How can our community be

  • involved?

  • Science and climate literacy

  • Outdoor experiences

  • Participate in scientific process


Tucson phenology monitoring project

Intro to Phenology

  • Phenology and Climate Change

    • Research, spring timing and range

  • Types of observed shifts

  • Timing of migratory bird arrivals

  • (Root et al. 2003, Gordo 2007)

  • Timing of animal emergence

  • (Inouye et al. 2000, Parmesan et al. 2003)

  • Timing of egg laying

  • (Brown et al. 1999)

  • Changing Migration Patterns

    1977: 3,000 Brant

    overwintered in Alaska

    Today: 40,000 overwinter

  • (Ward et al. 2009)


Tucson phenology monitoring project

Intro to Phenology

  • Phenology and Climate Change

    • Research, spring timing and range

  • 43 species at Walden Pond bloom 7 days earlier than in Thoreau’s time

  • Blueberries flower 21 days earlier

  • 27% of the species are no longer there

  • Importance of legacy datasets

  • (Primack and Rushing, 2012)

Species

and Ecosystems

influenced by

global environmental change

Photo by Scot Miller


Tucson phenology monitoring project

English Oak

Winter Moth

Pied Flycatcher

Intro to Phenology

  • Phenology and Climate Change

    • Research, spring timing and range

    • A three- way mismatch

EARLIER

EARLIER

SAME TIME EACH YEAR

Both et al. 2006 Nature


Tucson phenology monitoring project

Intro to Phenology

  • Research needs

  • Long-term, accessible data set

  • Interactive tools for visualization

  • Plant and animal species data for multiple locations

  • Focal species

  • Results

  • Better understanding of changes

  • Analysis of impacts

  • Communication


Tucson phenology monitoring project

Phenology Observation Program

  • Overview

    • Intro to Phenology

  • USA National Phenology Network

    • Research and Education

    • Site-based Programs

    • Using Nature’s Notebook

    • USA-NPN and Master Gardeners


Tucson phenology monitoring project

USA National Phenology Network

Primary goal

To encourage observation of phenological events and understand how plants, animals and landscapes respond to environmental variation and climate change.

Mission

Make phenology data, models and related information available to scientists, resource managers and the public.

Encourage people of all ages and backgrounds to observe and record phenology.

A national network of integrated phenological observations across space and time.


Tucson phenology monitoring project

USA National Phenology Network

Network Tools

Standard methods for data collection

Basic and applied research

Decision-support tools

Education and outreach

Nature’s Notebook

Legacy Datasets

Citizen Science Project


Tucson phenology monitoring project

USA-National Phenology Network

  • What Is Citizen Science?

  • Engages volunteers

  • Expands ability of scientists

  • Teaches scientific methods

  • Public and professional scientists

  • Research teams

  • Educate and generate data

Citizen Science Info

  • www.birds.cornell.edu/citsci/about

  • www.CitSci.org

  • www.scistarter.org


Tucson phenology monitoring project

USA National Phenology Network

  • Public Participation in Scientific Research (PPSR) From Cornell Lab of Ornithology

    • Citizen science, volunteer monitoring and other forms of organized research projects in which members of the public engage are included in the field

  • Meet science & research goals

  • Invasive plants, birds, bees/pollinators, earthquakes, infectious disease, astronomy, weather, wildlife, acid rain, oil spills, wildlife, rainfall, archaeology, pollution, “old weather”


  • Tucson phenology monitoring project

    USA-National Phenology Network

    www.usanpn.org


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    A Multi-taxa, National-scale Phenology System

    What’s Nature’s Notebook?

    A national plant and animal phenology observation program.

    Thousands of passionate citizen scientists across the US share their observations with researchers, resource managers and others who use this information to understand our changing planet, make scientific discoveries, and create new tools.


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    USA National Phenology Network

    • Online monitoring system

    • 311 vetted plant species

    • 160 vetted animal species

    • Core protocols

    • Abundance & intensity reporting

    • Metadata & QA/QC methods

    • Dynamic data visualizations

    • Possible species additions by request


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    USA National Phenology Network

    311 plant species and 160 animal species

    3160 observers at 4412 sites observing 5459 individual organisms


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    USA National Phenology Network

    Phenology Monitoring Methods

    • Event Monitoring

    • Captures

    • First instance of phenologicalevent

    • Phenology of species with predictable series of events

    • Does not capture

    • Sampling Frequency

    • Estimated error in event date

    • Unusual events

    • Repeat events

    • Duration of phenological stages


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Abundance and Intensity

    Captures

    Sampling frequency

    Error around date estimate

    Absence

    Unusual events

    Multiple occurrences of a phenophase in one year

    Phenophase duration

    USA National Phenology Network

    Phenology Monitoring Methods


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Status

    Status & Abundance

    USA National Phenology Network

    Phenology Monitoring Methods

    Activity

    Reproduction

    Development

    Event

    Day of year


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    USA National Phenology Network

    USA-NPN Education Program Goals

    Science and Climate Literacy

    Science-Nature-Self Relationships

    The Integration of Science and Education

    Engage observers with Nature’s Notebook and data collection through providing directed scientific outdoor experiences.


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    USA National Phenology Network

    • USA-NPN Education Program

      • Connect people to nature

        • - Nature Deficit Disorder

      • Agency engagement programs

      • Formal/informal education

      • Climate and science literacy

      • Move beyond 'gloom and doom' of climate change


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Nature Journal Activity

    • Nature Journals

    • Include basic information: date, time, weather, species

    • Text or sketches

    • Topography, layout, land alteration

    • Science, reference later

    • Phenology journals can be seasonal observations or just dates on a calendar


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    USA National Phenology Network

    Take a Rest!!

    15 minute break


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Phenology Observation Program

    • Overview

      • Intro to Phenology

      • USA National Phenology Network

    • Research and Education

      • Site-based Programs

      • Using Nature’s Notebook

      • USA-NPN and Master Gardeners


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Research and Education

    Climate Change

    Climate Change

    • Recent and unusual rise in global temperature

    • Understand plant & animal response

    • Record early/late spring & fall events

    • Ecosystem shift

    • Multiple and long-term observations


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Research and Education

    Combined Techniques

    Satellite/Remote Sensing

    Photographs

    Hand-recorded data


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Research and Education

    Data visualization


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Research and Education

    Can we detect the anomalously warm spring of 2010 in the NE US on organismal phenology?

    • NPN dataset - Opportunity to broaden investigation to full ROI (St Louis, MO to NE Maine) (Fredl et al, 2012. Unpublished.)

      • Common deciduous forest over-story trees, multi-species

      • Data from 2009-2011 only

      • 100s of sites, though time-series variable (sometimes sparse or discontinuous)

    • NPN data visualization tool

    • Emerging leaves or first leaf date (FLD)

      • Q: Advanced FLD in 2010 relative to 2009 and 2011?


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Research and Education

    Can we detect the anomalously warm spring of 2010 in the NE US on organismal phenology?

    • Problematic because we collective consider

      • Multiple sites

      • Multiple individuals

      • Multiple observers

    • But, we are interested in population-level effects…


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Research and Education

    • USA-NPN Resources

    • Available for Facilitation

    • Volunteer training materials

    • Workshop agendas and powerpoints, brochures, templates

    • Curriculum for upper middle, high school and adult programs

    • Online training materials

    • Site-based resources

    • Phenology trail and garden templates

    USA-NPN Education Program Staff can assist with program design & implementation on the Refuges.


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Research and Education

    • Phenology is a teaching tool – can teach scientific process

    • Citizen science programs can assist with limited staffing

    • Volunteers or partnerships with agencies (Extension) can make monitoring more robust


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Phenology Observation Program

    • Overview

      • Intro to Phenology

      • USA-NPN and USFWS Partnership

      • Research and Education

    • Site-based Programs

      • Using Nature’s Notebook

      • USA-NPN and Master Gardeners


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Site-based Programs

    • Workshops & Tours

    • How to observe

    • Local species talks

    • Campus plant and tree walks

    • Demonstration gardens

    • Master Gardener Class with Phenology chapter

    • Phenology Trails and Phenology Gardens

    • Neighborhood Association Partnerships


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Site-based Programs


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Site-based Programs

    Tucson Phenology

    Trail

    Campus

    Arboretum

    National

    Phenology

    Network

    Pima

    Extension

    Office

    BioSphere2

    Santa Rita

    Experimental

    Range

    Sam Hughes Neighborhood


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Site-based Programs


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Site-based Programs


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Site-based Programs

    A=Ocotillo

    B=Palo Verde

    C=Velvet Mesquite

    D=Velvet Mesquite

    E=Ocotillo

    F=Saguaro

    G=Ocotillo

    H=Creosote

    I=Creosote

    J=Jojoba


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Site-based Programs


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Site-based Programs

    Wildlife Refuges using Nature’s Notebook

    The Kenai Peninsula is under pressure from a drying, warming climate. Local residents and seasonal visitors can help scientists study the ways the forest, wetland and animal populations are adapting to these changes by recording data, spreading the word about their observations, and reducing the negative impacts to our special ecosystems on the Kenai.

    Leah Eskelin, Park Ranger

    Kenai Peninsula NWR, Alaska

    • Ventura Fish and Wildlife Office

    • Install gardens, host workshops, conduct monitoring

    • Train volunteers


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Site-based Programs


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Site-based Programs

    Cooperative Extension and Nature’s Notebook

    "Signs of the Seasons: A Maine Phenology Project”, recruits and trains volunteers to observe and record phenological data. One of the goals of the program is to broaden general knowledge of climate change by providing citizens with the tools to gather climate change data themselves - in other words it's a citizen-science initiative.”

    –Mao Teng Lin, USFWS Gulf Coast of Maine

    Gulf of Maine Coastal Program

    • Implementing a Phenology Monitoring Network, in partnership with local groups to track Florida species response to climate change.

    • Workshops, school groups, curriculum, botanical gardens


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Site-based Programs

    • Backyard observations

    • Trail observations

    • Share your data set

    • Data analysis

    • Join the conversation!

    “Having a reason and a mechanism for paying attention to the natural world around me enriches my life.” — Hans


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Dichotomous Key Activity – 20 mins

    Dichotomous means “divided into two parts” and a dichotomous

    key offers two choices at each step leading to the identity of the object.

    Used to identify things based on observable characteristics.

    Using the traditional dichotomous key, one should be able to pick up any

    object included in the key and follow the steps to arrive at its identity.

    Not tennis shoes

    Emily’s shoe

    Shoes with laces

    White

    Helen’s shoe

    Tennis shoes

    Orange

    John’s shoe

    Shoes

    Not sandals

    Ryan’s shoe

    Shoes without laces

    Sandals

    Marco’s shoe


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Dichotomous Key Activity – 20 mins

    Not tennis shoes

    Emily’s shoe

    Shoes with laces

    White

    Helen’s shoe

    Tennis shoes

    Orange

    John’s shoe

    Shoes

    Not sandals

    Ryan’s shoe

    Shoes without laces

    Sandals

    Marco’s shoe

    1. a. shoes with laces…………………………………….go to #2

    b. shoes without laces…………………………………go to #4

    2. a. not tennis shoes……………………………………..Emily’s shoe

    b. tennis shoes…………………………………………go to #3

    3. a. white………………………………………………...Helen’s shoe

    b. orange……………………………………………….John’s shoe

    4. a. not sandals…………………………………………..Ryan’s shoe

    b. sandals………………………………………………Marco’s shoe


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Dichotomous Key Activity – 20 mins

    Dichotomous Key

    with local species

    20 mins– half hour


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Phenology Observation Program

    • Overview

      • Intro to Phenology

      • USA-NPN and USFWS Partnership

      • Research and Education

      • Site-based Programs

    • Using Nature’s Notebook

      • USA-NPN and Master Gardeners


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    Get Started!


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    Five Steps:

    • Select and delineate a site

    • Select plant and animal species

    • Tag individual plants

    • Record your observations of animals and plants

    • Report your data online

    www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    • Select and delineate a site

    • A site is the area within which you will look for your species you choose to observe. When you select a site, such as your yard or a nearby natural area, consider these guidelines:

    • Convenience and easily accessible.

    • Representative location of the environmental conditions for your area. Flat, gentle slope..

    www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    • Select and delineate a site

    • Uniform habitat

    • Appropriate size - < 15 acres

      • Plants and animals?

      • Your backyard

    • PROPER PERMISSION!

      • Agency may already be participating

      • No trespassing

    • More than 20 feet from building

    www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    • Select Plant and Animal Species

    • Choose from list of recommended (vetted) species

    • Calibration species

      • Ecological importance

      • Big-picture

    • Proper identification

    • Data quality!

    • One - three plants for variation

    • Use comments

    • Tag your plants!

    • Ease of location

    www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    • Record Observations

    • To make observations, you will need:

    • Phenophasedefinitions and instructions

    • Datasheets, clipboard, pencil: You can download and print a datasheet for each plant or animals from the profile page

    • Binoculars (optional)

    www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    • Record Observations

    • To make observations, you will need:

    • Phenophasedefinitions and instructions

    www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    • Record Observations

    • YES

    • NO

    • UNCERTAIN

    • No record if you did not check

    www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    Frequency of Observations

    As often as possible

    At least once a week

    All observations are valuable!

    • Time of Day

    • Convenient

    • Consistent

    • Daytime

    Keep looking for a phenophase even if it has ended

    www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    Why?

    Phenophases may be triggered by moisture and not just temperature

    Negative data is valuable

    Conditions may change rapidly

    More data = better analysis

    Climate shift may be changing when events occur

    www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    • Plants: repeat observations of the same individual plants

    • Animals: create a checklist for your site, look and listen for all species each time you visit


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    Enter Observations Online

    Create your account

    Register your site

    Register your plants

    Create your animal checklist

    www.usanpn.org/participate/guidelines


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    • Create an account

    • Click on #3


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    Creating a site at home


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Using Nature’s Notebook

    • Resources available to you:

    • Online training materials for Nature’s Notebook at home

    • Volunteer/community engagement tips

    • Plans for implementation of Phenology Gardens and Trails with corresponding curriculum

    • Assistance from the USA-NPN Education Specialist on how to tailor Nature’s Notebook to your needs


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Phenology Observation Program

    • Overview

      • Intro to Phenology

      • USA-NPN and USFWS Partnership

      • Research and Education

      • Site-based Programs

      • Using Nature’s Notebook

    • USA-NPN & Master Gardeners


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Assignment

    • Know your Native Plants!

    Jojoba

    Saguaro

    Creosote bush

    Velvet mesquite

    Honey mesquite

    Desert ironwood

    Blue paloverde

    Yellow paloverde


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    Questions?


    Tucson phenology monitoring project

    You’re invited to

    connect with USA-NPN…

    Sign up for a phenology e-newsletter (quarterly)

    Join the Nature’s Notebook community and become an observer: Contribute to science while having fun!

    Discover new tools and resources for work or play

    LoriAnne Barnett

    USA-NPN

    Education Coordinator

    [email protected]

    Thank you!


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