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3D Photography: Beyond Perspective. Steve Seitz Dept. Computer Science & Eng. University of Washington. Perspective Projection. Humans evolved with perspective eyes Capture light along rays that converge at a single point. Cameras also evolved with perspective optics.

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3d photography beyond perspective

3D Photography:Beyond Perspective

Steve Seitz

Dept. Computer Science & Eng.

University of Washington


Perspective projection
Perspective Projection

  • Humans evolved with perspective eyes

    • Capture light along rays that converge at a single point


Cameras also evolved with perspective optics

  • Optimized for humans, not computers!



The Blue Marble, NASA satellite image composite


The Blue Marble, NASA satellite image composite


The Blue Marble, NASA satellite image composite



Print Gallery, by M.C. Escher, 1956


Panorama from Disney’s 1940 film Pinocchio(from Wood et al., SIGGRAPH 1997)


What s an image

general image

What’s an Image?

  • An image is any 2D subset of rays in space

    • Actually, the light energy flowing along these rays

    • Any 2D “slice” of the plenoptic function

perspective image


Non perspective imaging
Non-perspective Imaging

  • Issues:

    • What other types of images are possible?

    • Which images are useful?

    • How can we capture these images?






Path images4
Path Images

  • Pushbroom images

    • satellite

  • Bolles et al. [87]

    • EPI

  • Tsuji et al. [92]

    • omni-directional image

  • Peleg et al. [97]

    • manifold mosaic

  • Radamacher & Bishop [99]

    • MCOP

  • . . .

y

x

t


Linear path

pushbroom images

Linear Path

  • Video Cube Demo

    • application by Michael Cohen et al., Microsoft

input


Circular path

circular EPI

panorama

(“concentric mosaic”)

input image

Circular Path


Circular path1
Circular Path

input

video cube

cyclographs



Circular stereo

y

x0-n

x0

x0+n

x

q

Circular Stereo

I

  • [Ishiguro, Yamamoto, Tsuji, 92]

  • [Peleg and Ben-Ezra, 99]

  • [Shum, Kalai, Seitz, 99]

  • [Nayar and Karmarkar, 00]


Stereo panorama
Stereo Panorama

Disparity map result


Stereo panorama1
Stereo Panorama

Dark--close, light--far


Circular stereo1
Circular Stereo

  • Advantages

    • 360 degree scene reconstruction

    • Uniform accuracy, optimal


Pushbroom stereo

y

x0-n

x0

x0+n

x

t

Pushbroom Stereo


Stereo cyclographs

y

x0-n

x0

x0+n

x

q

Stereo Cyclographs


Stereo cyclograph reconstruction
Stereo Cyclograph Reconstruction

  • Computed from two cyclograph images

    • Using unmodified stereo matcher [Zitnick & Kanade]


Stereo path images
Stereo Path Images

  • Do these all produce stereo pairs?

    • two images with horizontal parallax

Yes


Stereo path images1
Stereo Path Images

  • How about this path?

No

  • Yes if the camera path is a conic

    • line, circle, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola

  • Must capture rays lying on doubly-ruled quadrics

    • [Padja 2001], [Seitz 2001]


Stereo parabolic panoramas

perspective image

parabolic panorama

Stereo Parabolic Panoramas


Beyond perspective
Beyond Perspective

  • Cameras for humans, not machines!

    • Need to rethink cameras

    • Image should suit the task

  • Future: cameras will evolve like CPU’s

    • First: task-specific cameras

    • Then: programmable cameras

      • FPGA  programmable camera arrays

  • Thanks to Jiwon Kim, Michael Cohen


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