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Kennedy and the Cold War. The Great Debates. 1 st Televised Debate. 1. Presidential Campaign. Kennedy: Came from politically powerful Massachusetts family War hero Represented the future. Nixon: Self-made man from a small town Ties Eisenhower tied him to the past. 2.

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Presentation Transcript

The Great Debates

1st Televised Debate

1


Presidential Campaign

Kennedy:

Came from politically powerful Massachusetts family

War hero

Represented the future

Nixon:

Self-made man from a small town

Ties Eisenhower tied him to the past

2


Election of 1960

  • JFK capitalized on their differences

  • Adopted the term “New Frontier”

  • Played on Nation’s Cold War fears

  • Showed concern for poor

3


Election of 1960

  • Defended Eisenhower’s record

  • Made him appear tied to the past

3


Catholic Candidate

  • Some Protestant voters concerned

  • Fears that JFK might put views of Catholic Church over those

  • of American public

4


Election Day

  • One of the closest in history

  • JFK became youngest (43 years) President in history

  • Popular vote separated by 120,000 votes

  • Electoral 303-219

5


Kennedy and MLK

JFK’s support for Martin Luther

King won him the support of

black voters

6


JFK takes Office

  • Inaugural address focused on

  • theme of change

  • Also strong anti-Communist tone

7


“The Best and the Brightest”

  • Young, well educated experts

  • in their fields

  • Closest advisor RFK, brother

  • and youngest ever Attorney

  • General (36)

8


Bay of Pigs Invasion

  • CIA had been training 1,500 Cuban exiles in Central America to invade

  • Cuba to overthrow Fidel Castro

  • Many had been recruited in south Florida

9


Background of Invasion

  • Came to power in 1959 after a 2 year

  • guerilla war against Fulgencio Batista

  • Batista was a U.S. backed dictator

  • Castro promised to restore rights and

  • freedoms

  • Once in power he seized private businesses

  • Began making anti-American speeches

  • Eisenhower cut economic and diplomatic ties

Fidel Castro

10


Invasion of Cuba

  • Plan hatched by CIA under Eisenhower

  • JFK

    • Considered Castro’s Communism

    • a threat to all Latin America

    • Had criticized IKE for inaction during

    • presidential campaign

    • Felt he would look weak if he backed

    • down

11


Disaster

  • Plans leaked to New York Times a

  • week before, JFK denied story

  • April 15, 1961

    • Unmarked US bombers failed to

    • take out Cuban air force

    • JFK cancelled airstrikes scheduled

    • for next two days

    • Land invasion April 17th

    • Castro’s troops were waiting

    • for invaders

12


Result of Bay of Pigs

  • Total failure

  • Castro viewed as hero in Cuba

  • 1,200 invaders captured

  • Strengthened ties between Cuba

  • and the Soviet Union

13


Cuban missile crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis

  • Kennedy looked for other ways to

  • unseat Castro

  • interrupted Cuban trade, ordered

  • more raids by exiles, plotted Castro’s

  • assassination- (all through the CIA)

  • Castro and Khrushchev were furious

  • in October of 1962 a U.S. spy plane

  • took photos of crews installing

  • Soviet missiles in Cuba

President John F. Kennedy


Cuban missile crisis1
Cuban Missile Crisis

  • Kennedy’s advisors met for a week

  • to decide a course of action

  • negotiations were ruled out since it

  • would allow time for more missiles

  • to be put in place

  • invasion might start nuclear war

  • Kennedy decided on blockade of

  • Cuba to stop further delivery of

  • nuclear weapons….then quietly push

  • Khrushchev to remove the weapons


Cuban missile crisis2
Cuban Missile Crisis

  • Kennedy sent 180 warships sailing to

  • Cuba, deployed B-52 bombers with

  • nuclear weapons, military forces

  • worldwide on alert

  • Soviets sent ships toward Cuba and

  • world held its breath, U-2 shot down

  • Khrushchev agreed to remove the

  • missiles if U.S. vowed to never attack

  • Cuba

  • Khrushchev demanded that the U.S.

  • remove missiles from Turkey (we ignored

  • this)


Cuban missile crisis3
Cuban Missile Crisis

  • Kennedy agreed to the first demand

  • but ignored the second

  • He also ordered Khrushchev to get

  • the missiles out of Cuba – or the

  • United States would take them out

  • Khrushchev finally backed down -

  • the crisis ended


After the crisis
After the Crisis

  • the standoff changed the character of

  • the Cold War

  • both accepted each other’s power and

  • admitted the importance of negotiation

  • installed a hotline for communication

  • in event of future crisis

  • did nothing to slow the arms race, the

  • Soviets felt humiliated

  • stockpile of nuclear weapons continued


Kennedy’s New Frontier

  • America struck by Kennedy youth and vitality

14



Kennedy and Congress

  • New Frontier: name given to his plans for change

  • Conservative Congress (didn’t favor change)

  • Narrow victory, no mandate (authorization to act)

16


The Space Program

  • Direct result of Cold War Crises

  • Soviets 1st man in space 1961

  • May, 1961 proposal to Congress:

  • “ This nation should commit itself

  • to achieving the goal, before this

  • decade is out, of landing a man on

  • the moon and returning him safely

  • to earth…”

  • John Glenn 1962

17


The Warren Court

  • Series of controversial rulings which greatly extended individual rights

  • and freedoms

  • Brown v Board (1954)

  • Baker v Carr (1962)

  • Engel v Vitale (1962)

  • Abington School District v Schempp (1963)

  • Gideon v Wainwright (1963)

  • Miranda v Arizona (1966)

  • Roe v Wade (1973) not technically a “Warren Court”

  • decision

18


The Kennedy Assassination

  • 1964 campaign approaching

  • JFK flew to Dallas to win support of southern Democrats

  • November 22, 1963

19




22











Jack Ruby

Tried and convicted of the

murder of Lee Harvey Oswald

33




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