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Kennedy and the Cold War. The Great Debates. 1 st Televised Debate. 1. Presidential Campaign. Kennedy: Came from politically powerful Massachusetts family War hero Represented the future. Nixon: Self-made man from a small town Ties Eisenhower tied him to the past. 2.

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Presentation Transcript
slide3

The Great Debates

1st Televised Debate

1

slide7

Presidential Campaign

Kennedy:

Came from politically powerful Massachusetts family

War hero

Represented the future

Nixon:

Self-made man from a small town

Ties Eisenhower tied him to the past

2

slide8

Election of 1960

  • JFK capitalized on their differences
  • Adopted the term “New Frontier”
  • Played on Nation’s Cold War fears
  • Showed concern for poor

3

slide9

Election of 1960

  • Defended Eisenhower’s record
  • Made him appear tied to the past

3

slide10

Catholic Candidate

  • Some Protestant voters concerned
  • Fears that JFK might put views of Catholic Church over those
  • of American public

4

slide11

Election Day

  • One of the closest in history
  • JFK became youngest (43 years) President in history
  • Popular vote separated by 120,000 votes
  • Electoral 303-219

5

slide12

Kennedy and MLK

JFK’s support for Martin Luther

King won him the support of

black voters

6

slide13

JFK takes Office

  • Inaugural address focused on
  • theme of change
  • Also strong anti-Communist tone

7

slide14

“The Best and the Brightest”

  • Young, well educated experts
  • in their fields
  • Closest advisor RFK, brother
  • and youngest ever Attorney
  • General (36)

8

slide15

Bay of Pigs Invasion

  • CIA had been training 1,500 Cuban exiles in Central America to invade
  • Cuba to overthrow Fidel Castro
  • Many had been recruited in south Florida

9

slide16

Background of Invasion

  • Came to power in 1959 after a 2 year
  • guerilla war against Fulgencio Batista
  • Batista was a U.S. backed dictator
  • Castro promised to restore rights and
  • freedoms
  • Once in power he seized private businesses
  • Began making anti-American speeches
  • Eisenhower cut economic and diplomatic ties

Fidel Castro

10

slide17

Invasion of Cuba

  • Plan hatched by CIA under Eisenhower
  • JFK
    • Considered Castro’s Communism
    • a threat to all Latin America
    • Had criticized IKE for inaction during
    • presidential campaign
    • Felt he would look weak if he backed
    • down

11

slide18

Disaster

  • Plans leaked to New York Times a
  • week before, JFK denied story
  • April 15, 1961
    • Unmarked US bombers failed to
    • take out Cuban air force
    • JFK cancelled airstrikes scheduled
    • for next two days
    • Land invasion April 17th
    • Castro’s troops were waiting
    • for invaders

12

slide19

Result of Bay of Pigs

  • Total failure
  • Castro viewed as hero in Cuba
  • 1,200 invaders captured
  • Strengthened ties between Cuba
  • and the Soviet Union

13

cuban missile crisis
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Kennedy looked for other ways to
  • unseat Castro
  • interrupted Cuban trade, ordered
  • more raids by exiles, plotted Castro’s
  • assassination- (all through the CIA)
  • Castro and Khrushchev were furious
  • in October of 1962 a U.S. spy plane
  • took photos of crews installing
  • Soviet missiles in Cuba

President John F. Kennedy

cuban missile crisis1
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Kennedy’s advisors met for a week
  • to decide a course of action
  • negotiations were ruled out since it
  • would allow time for more missiles
  • to be put in place
  • invasion might start nuclear war
  • Kennedy decided on blockade of
  • Cuba to stop further delivery of
  • nuclear weapons….then quietly push
  • Khrushchev to remove the weapons
cuban missile crisis2
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Kennedy sent 180 warships sailing to
  • Cuba, deployed B-52 bombers with
  • nuclear weapons, military forces
  • worldwide on alert
  • Soviets sent ships toward Cuba and
  • world held its breath, U-2 shot down
  • Khrushchev agreed to remove the
  • missiles if U.S. vowed to never attack
  • Cuba
  • Khrushchev demanded that the U.S.
  • remove missiles from Turkey (we ignored
  • this)
cuban missile crisis3
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Kennedy agreed to the first demand
  • but ignored the second
  • He also ordered Khrushchev to get
  • the missiles out of Cuba – or the
  • United States would take them out
  • Khrushchev finally backed down -
  • the crisis ended
after the crisis
After the Crisis
  • the standoff changed the character of
  • the Cold War
  • both accepted each other’s power and
  • admitted the importance of negotiation
  • installed a hotline for communication
  • in event of future crisis
  • did nothing to slow the arms race, the
  • Soviets felt humiliated
  • stockpile of nuclear weapons continued
slide26

Kennedy’s New Frontier

  • America struck by Kennedy youth and vitality

14

slide28

Kennedy and Congress

  • New Frontier: name given to his plans for change
  • Conservative Congress (didn’t favor change)
  • Narrow victory, no mandate (authorization to act)

16

slide29

The Space Program

  • Direct result of Cold War Crises
  • Soviets 1st man in space 1961
  • May, 1961 proposal to Congress:
  • “ This nation should commit itself
  • to achieving the goal, before this
  • decade is out, of landing a man on
  • the moon and returning him safely
  • to earth…”
  • John Glenn 1962

17

slide31

The Warren Court

  • Series of controversial rulings which greatly extended individual rights
  • and freedoms
  • Brown v Board (1954)
  • Baker v Carr (1962)
  • Engel v Vitale (1962)
  • Abington School District v Schempp (1963)
  • Gideon v Wainwright (1963)
  • Miranda v Arizona (1966)
  • Roe v Wade (1973) not technically a “Warren Court”
  • decision

18

slide32

The Kennedy Assassination

  • 1964 campaign approaching
  • JFK flew to Dallas to win support of southern Democrats
  • November 22, 1963

19

slide35

Texas Schoolbook Depository

  • Three Shots fired
  • President Kennedy and
  • Texas Governor Connolly
  • hit

22

slide45

Jack Ruby

Tried and convicted of the

murder of Lee Harvey Oswald

33

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