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AP REVIEW . 11- 15 . Ch 11 - Intelligence . Fluid – abstract problem solving – new info/skills Crystallized – using knowledge gained overtime Spearman – g factor - intelligence expressed by a single factor Thurston – seven intelligences Gardner – multiple intelligence

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AP REVIEW

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Ap review

AP REVIEW

11- 15


Ch 11 intelligence

Ch 11 - Intelligence

Fluid – abstract problem solving – new info/skills

Crystallized – using knowledge gained overtime

Spearman– g factor - intelligence expressed by a single factor

Thurston– seven intelligences

Gardner– multiple intelligence

linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, musical, kinesthetic,

intrapersonal, interpersonal, natural

Goleman– EQ

Sternberg– triarchictheory (3)

analytical – school smarts

experiential/creative – use experience

practical – street smarts


Ch 11

Ch 11 -

IQ tests

  • Binet– concept of mental age (wanted to help struggling students)

  • Terman– used Binet’s ideas to create Stanford-Binet test

    • mental age/chronological age = IQ

  • Wechsler – WAIS, WISC (deviation IQ, based on norms)

  • mean IQ=100, standard deviation = 15

  • Nature vs. nurture & IQ

  • Heritability – how much a trait’s variation in a given population is explained by heredity (ranges from 0 to 1)

    Flynn effect – intelligence test scores have steadily risen in the 20thcentury because of environment

    Twin research supports idea that intelligence has hereditary component


Ch 12 motivation

Ch 12 - Motivation

  • Drive Reduction Theory –

    primary drives

    secondary drives

    Reason – we seek homeostasis

  • Arousal theory – each person has optimal level

  • Yerkes-Dodson Law (perform easy task well with high level of arousal, difficult task poorly – similar to social facilitation)

  • Incentive theory – we are drawn to rewards because of learning

  • Maslow’s hierarchy – we are motivated to self actualization

    Lowest – physiological needs

    Then safety, belongingness & love, esteem

    Highest – self-actualization


Ch 12 motivation1

Ch 12 - Motivation

  • Hunger motivation

    Stimulate lateral hypothalamus – get hungry

    Stimulate ventromedial hypothalamus – feel full

  • Set-point theory – hypothalamus seeks optimal body weight, sends hunger signals when we drop below a certain weight, also triggers a lower metabolic rate when we’re hungry

    Psychological factors: internals/externals

    disorders: bulimia (binge/purge)

    anorexia nervosa (starve to below 85% of normal body weight)


Ch 12 motivation2

Ch 12 - Motivation

  • Social motivation

    Achievement motivation

    Extrinsic motivation

    Intrinsic motivation

    Management theory

    Theory X – rewards & punishment

    Theory Y – intrinsic motivation

    Conflict in motivation

    approach-approach conflict

    avoidance-avoidance conflict

    approach-avoidance conflict


Ch 13 emotion

Ch 13- Emotion

  • James-Lange theory – 1st physiological change, then emotion

  • Cannon-Bard– simultaneous experience of physiology & emotion

  • Schachter’stwo-factor theory – Similar to James-Lange, adds cognition

  • Selye’sgeneral adaptation syndrome (GAS)

    Alarm – resistance – exhaustion

    Result – stress disorders


Chapter 15 personality

Chapter 15 – Personality

Personality – unique attitudes, behaviors, emotions that characterize a person

Key question: stability vs. change

Type A vs. Type B (A = competitive, aggressive, volatile)

Freudian theory – psychosexual stages

Oral – 0-1 year, pleasure from mouth

Anal – 1-3 years, pleasure from elimination

Phallic – 3-5 years, pleasure from genitals

Oedipal complex – boy wants mom, resents dad

Castration anxiety

Electra complex – girl wants dad, resents mom (not Freud)

Penis envy

Resolved through identification with same sex parent

Latency – 6-puberty, repression of sexual feelings

Genital – puberty on, sexual pleasure through relationships

Fixations – problem in resolving a stage

Oral – overeat, smoke, chew gum

Anal – anal retentive (compulsive, overly organized)

Anal expulsive (messy, disorganized)


Chapter 15 personality1

Chapter 15 – Personality

Id(pleasure principle)

Ego(reality principle) – mediates between id and superego

Superego– conscience, mores of society

Defense mechanisms

Repression

Denial

Displacement

Projection

Reaction formation

Regression

Rationalization

Sublimation

Criticisms of Freud

Feminists (Karen Horney – womb envy)

Neo-Freudians

Adler– birth order, inferiority complex – drive for superiority

Carl Jung – collective unconscious


Ap review

Chapter 15 – Personality

Trait theories

Hans Eysenck– stable-instable, introversion-extraversion scale

Raymond Cattell– 16PF (personality factor) - basic in all people

Big 5 – OCEAN (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism)

Factor analysis – finding clusters of items that differentiate between traits

Gordon Allport– cardinal dispositions (traits that clearly identify a person)

Central dispositions/secondary dispositions


Ap review

Chapter 15 – Personality

Biological theories

Temperaments – characteristic way of dealing with the world

Social-cognitive theories

Bandura – reciprocal determinism (traits, environment, behavior)

Self-efficacy – making a difference, getting things done

Rotter – locus of control (internal vs. external)


Ap review

Chapter 15 – Personality

Humanistic theories

People are innately good

Self-concept

Self-esteem

Unconditional positive regard, empathy, genuineness

Assessment of personality

Projective test – Rorschach, Draw-a-Person, TAT

Self-report inventories – MMPI

Barnum effect – see self in vague, stock descriptions of personality


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