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Nervous System. Ms. Bowman. Nervous System. Master controlling and communicating system of the body 1-Information that is gathered and sent to the brain is sensory 2-The brain processes and interprets the information and decides what action should be taken

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nervous system

Nervous System

Ms. Bowman

nervous system1
Nervous System
  • Master controlling and communicating system of the body
  • 1-Information that is gathered and sent to the brain is sensory
  • 2-The brain processes and interprets the information and decides what action should be taken
  • 3-Brain sends a response called a motor output
central nervous system cns
Central Nervous System (CNS)
  • Consists of brain and spinal cord
  • The integrating and command center of the nervous system
  • Interprets sensory input and dictates motor responses based on past experience, reflexes, and current conditions
peripheral nervous system pns
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
  • The part of the nervous system outside of the CNS
  • Consists mainly of nerves that extend from the brain (cranial nerves) and spinal cord (spinal nerves)
  • These nerves serve as the communicating lines that link all parts of the body to the CNS
  • 2 divisions-Sensory and Motor
sensory division of pns
Sensory Division of PNS
  • “carrying toward”
  • Consists of nerve fibers that convey impulses to the CNS from sensory receptors located throughout the body
  • Keeps the CNS constantly informed of events going on inside and outside the body
motor division of pns
Motor Division of PNS
  • “carrying away”
  • Transmits impulses from the CNS to effector organs (muscles and glands)
  • Impulses activate muscles to contract and glands to secrete
  • They bring about a motor response
  • 2 parts: Somatic and Autonomic
somatic nervous system
Somatic Nervous System
  • Voluntary nervous system
  • Composed of nerve fibers that conduct impulses from CNS to skeletal muscles
  • Allows us to consciously control our skeletal muscles
autonomic nervous system
Autonomic Nervous System
  • Involuntary nervous system
  • Consists of visceral (pertaining to your gut) motor fibers that regulate the activity of smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands
  • 2 subdivisions: Sympathetic and Parasympathetic
sympathetic division of ans
Sympathetic Division of ANS
  • Mobilizes involuntary body systems during activity
parasympathetic division of ans
Parasympathetic Division of ANS
  • Conserves energy
  • Promotes housekeeping functions during rest
neurons
Neurons
  • Nerve cells
  • The structural units of the nervous system
  • Highly specialized cells that conduct messages in the form of nerve impulses from one part of the body to another
  • Special characteristics
    • Extreme longevity-can function for a lifetime
    • Amitotic-lose ability to divide; most cannot be replaced if they are damaged or destroyed
    • High metabolic rate-require continuous and abundant supplies of oxygen and glucose
neurons1
Neurons
  • Typically large, complex cells
  • Vary in structure, but all have a nucleus and one or more processes that project
  • Processes
    • Axons-conducting region; generate nerve impulses and transmit them
    • Dendrites-receptive or input region; information collector
classification of neurons
Classification of Neurons
  • Multipolar-3 or more processes; most common neuron type in humans and major type in CNS
  • Bipolar-2 processes; one axon and dendrite; rare neurons found in some special sense organs
  • Unipolar-1 single short process that divides T-like
brain
Brain
  • Protected by the meninges
    • Comprised of 3 layers of connective membranes
      • Dura Mater-strongest; outermost
      • Arachnoid Mater- middle; forms a loose brain covering; web-like projections anchor it to pia mater
      • Pia Mater-composed of delicate connective tissue; lots of blood vessels; innermost; clings tightly to brain
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)-watery “broth” that forms a liquid cushion and protects the brain and spinal cord; helps to nourish the brain
  • Ventricles-canals that carry the CSF within brain and brain stem
brain1
Brain
  • Divided into 3 components
    • Cerebrum
    • Cerebellum
    • Brain Stem
cerebral hemispheres
Cerebral Hemispheres
  • Form the superior part of the brain
  • Entire surface marked by gyri (elevated ridges of tissue) that are separated by sulci (shallow grooves)
  • Fissures (deep grooves) separate large regions of the brain
  • Where our conscious mind is found; enables us to be aware of ourselves and sensations, to communicate, remember, understand, and initiate voluntary movements
cerebellum
Cerebellum
  • Processes inputs received from the cerebrum, brain stem, and sensory receptors
  • Provides the precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscle contraction for smooth, coordinated movements and agility needed for our daily living
  • Activity occurs subconsciously so we are not aware of it
brain stem
Brain Stem
  • Produce the rigidly programmed, automatic behaviors necessary for survival
  • Origin of 10 of the 12 pairs of cranial nerves
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