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NERVOUS SYSTEM. FUNCTIONS. TO DETECT CHANGES AND FEEL SENSATIONS TO INITIATE APPROPRIATE RESPONSES TO CHANGE TO ORGANIZE INFORMATION FOR IMMEDIATE USE AND TO STORE IT FOR FUTURE USE. DIVISIONS OF THE NS. CNS INCLUDES BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD PNS

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Functions l.jpg
FUNCTIONS

  • TO DETECT CHANGES AND FEEL SENSATIONS

  • TO INITIATE APPROPRIATE RESPONSES TO CHANGE

  • TO ORGANIZE INFORMATION FOR IMMEDIATE USE AND TO STORE IT FOR FUTURE USE


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DIVISIONS OF THE NS

  • CNS

    INCLUDES BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD

  • PNS

    INCLUDES CRANIAL NERVES, SPINAL NERVES, AND THE AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM (ANS)


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PARTS OF A NERVE CELL

  • DENDRITES – TRANSMIT IMPULSES TOWARDS THE CELL BODY

  • CELL BODY – CONTAINS NUCLEUS

  • AXON – TRANSMIT IMPULSES AWAY FROM THE CELL BODY


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WHAT’S SIMILAR IN THE CNS AND THE PNS?

  • BOTH CONTAIN THE MYELIN SHEATH (A SHEATH THAT ELECTRICALLY INSULATES NEURONS FROM ONE ANOTHER)

  • THE MYELIN SHEATH ALLOWS SMOOTH NERVE IMPULSE TRANSMISSION FROM ONE NEURON TO ANOTHER


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WHAT’S DIFFERENT IN THE CNS AND THE PNS?

  • CNS

  • THE MYELIN SHEATH IS FORMED BY OLIGODENDROCYTES, A SPECIALIZED CELL THAT CANNOT REGENERATE


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FOR EXAMPLE

  • THE PHRENIC NERVE – C3-C5


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WHAT’S DIFFERENT IN THE CNS AND PNS?

  • PNS

  • THE MYELIN SHEATH IS MADE OF SCHWANN CELLS

  • THE NUCLEI ARE OUTSIDE OF THE MYELIN SHEATH AND CALLED A NEUROLEMMA

  • THESE CAN REGENERATE


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THE REFLEX ARC

  • THE PATHWAY NERVE IMPUSLES TRAVEL WHEN A REFLEX IS ELICITED


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5 ESSENTIAL PARTS TO REFLEX

  • RECEPTORS – DETECT STIMULUS AND GENERATE IMPULSE

  • SENSORY NEURON – CARRY IMPULSES TO THE CNS

  • CNS – CONTAINS 1 OR MORE SYNAPSES

  • MOTOR NEURON – CARRY IMPULSES FROM THE CNS TO THE EFFECTOR

  • EFFECTOR – PERFORMS ACTION


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STRETCH REFLEX

  • KEEPS OUR BODY UPRIGHT WITHOUT THINKING


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FLEXOR REFLEX

  • AKA WITHDRAWAL REFLEX

  • PREVENTS INJURY BY PULLING AWAY FROM A

    PAINFUL

    STIMULUS


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SPINAL CORD

  • TRANSMITS MESSAGES TO AND FROM THE BRAIN

  • EXTENDS FROM THE

    FORAMEN MAGNUM

    TO L2

  • CALLED THE CAUDA

    EQUINA AFTER

    L2


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SPINAL CORD

  • THE CENTER OF THE CORD CONTAINS GRAY MATTER THAT CARRIES MOTOR IMPULSES

  • THE EXTERNAL PORTION OF THE CORD CONTAINS WHITE MATTER THAT CARRIES SENSORY IMPULSES


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SPINAL CORD

  • ASCENDING TRACTS CARRY SENSORY IMPULSES TO THE BRAIN (WHITE MATTER)

  • DESCENDING TRACTS CARRY MOTOR IMPULSES AWAY FROM THE BRAIN (GRAY MATTER)

  • THE CENTRAL CANAL CONTAINS CSF


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SPINAL NERVES

  • 31 PAIRS OF SPINAL

    NERVES

    8 CERVICAL

    12 THORACIC

    5 LUMBAR

    5 SACRAL

    1 COCCYGEAL


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SPINAL NERVES

  • EACH SPINAL NERVE HAS 2 ROOTS

  • THE DORSAL ROOT CARRIES IMPULSES IN TO THE CORD

  • THE VENTRAL ROOT CARRIES IMPULSES OUT OF THE CORD


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BRAIN

  • CEREBRUM – LARGEST PART OF THE BRAIN

  • THE TWO HEMISPHERES ARE CONNECTED BY THE CORPUS CALLOSUM THAT CONNECTS THE RIGHT AND LEFT HEMISPHERES

  • THERE IS A LATERAL VENTRICLE IN EACH HEMISPHERE


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CEREBRUM

  • THE CEREBRAL CORTEX (SURFACE) IS FOLDED EXTENSIVELY WITH GYRI THAT ALLOWS MILLIONS MORE NEURONS


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CEREBRUM

  • 4 LOBES

  • FRONTAL – MOTOR AREAS

  • PARIETAL – SENSORY AREAS

  • TEMPORAL – AUDITORY AND OLFACTORY AREAS

  • OCCIPITAL – VISUAL AREA


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  • PITUITARY – CONTROLS GROWTH

  • THALAMUS – INTEGRATES SENSATIONS

  • HYPOTHALAMUS – MANY FUNCTIONS

  • CEREBELLUM – COORDINATION, POSTURE, EQUILIBRIUM

  • VENTRICLES (4) – CONTAINS THE CHOROID PLEXUS THAT MAKES CSF


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BRAINSTEM

  • MIDBRAIN – VISUAL AND AUDITORY REFLEXES

  • PONS – 2 RESPIRATORY CENTERS FOR NORMAL BREATHING

  • MEDULLA OBLONGATA – REGULATES HEART RATE, BLOOD PRESSURE, AND RESPIRATION. ALSO A REFLEX CENTER FOR COUGHING, SNEEZING, SWALLOWING, VOMITING


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CONNECTIVE TISSUE MEMBRANES

  • COVER BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD

  • CALLED MENINGES

  • 3 LAYERS

  • DURA MATER – THICK OUTER LAYER

  • ARACHNOID MEMBRANE – MIDDLE LAYER

  • PIA MATER – INNERMOST LAYER

  • SUBARACHNOID SPACE – CONTAINS CSF


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CSF

  • CEREBROSPINAL FLUID

  • BRINGS NUTRIENTS TO CNS NEURONS AND REMOVES WASTES TO THE BLOOD

  • ACTS AS A CUSHION FOR CNS


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CRANIAL NERVES

  • 12 PAIRS

  • EMERGE FROM THE BRAIN STEM OR OTHER PARTS OF THE BRAIN


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CN I – OLFACTORY

CN II – OPTIC

CN III – OCULOMOTOR

CN IV – TROCHLEAR

CN V – TRIGEMINAL

CN VI – ABDUCENS

CN VII – FACIAL

CN VIII – ACOUSTIC

CN IX – GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL

CN X – VAGUS

CN XI – ACCESSORY

CN XII - HYPOGLOSSAL


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AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM

  • PART OF THE PNS

  • 2 DIVISIONS

  • SYMPATHETIC

  • PARASYMPATHETIC

    THESE ARE INTEGRATED BY THE HYPOTHALAMUS


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