Energy in Aquatic Systems. Photosynthesis = Traps light energy in glucose. (= Most important.) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Chemosynthesis = Transfers chemical energy from H 2 , H 2 S, or CH 4 to energy in glucose (or another organic form)
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Photosynthesis = Traps light energy in glucose. (= Most important.)
6CO2 + 6H2O + light→C6H12O6 + 6O2
Chemosynthesis = Transfers chemical energy from H2, H2S, or CH4 to energy in glucose (or another organic form)
6CO2 + 6H2O + 3H2S→C6H12O6 + 3H2SO4
Glycolysis + Cell. Respiration = Release energy in glucose in cell. useful from (ATP).
6O2+ C6H12O6→ 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP
6CO2 + 6H2O + light→C6H12O6 + 6O2
- Deeper = less light
- More turbid = less light
- Dead things and poop sink taking
their macronutrients away from light
Photosynth. Org. Classification
Holoplankton = organisms that spend their entire lives “drifting” in the water column.
Meroplankton = organisms that spend their early lives “drifting” in the water column.
Microzooplankton = non-photosynthetic protozoans (& VERY small animals) that “drift” in the water column.
Organisms in Fringing Communities
VERY FEW marine flowering plants.
aquatic insectsrare in marine environments, all adults;
neustonic or fringing
Actinopterygiians – most “bony” fishes; have bony skeleton, incredibly diverse; very many marine & very many fresh.; nektonic, epifaunal/benthic/dermersal
Teleosts = most species of actinopterygiians
Amphibians – frogs, salamanders, newts, & caecilians; most have aquatic larvae & some adults remain aquatic, all eat animal matter; all fresh., NO marine; epifaunal/benthic/dermersal, fringing
Reptiles – Important aquatic subgroups, but ALL must lay eggs (or give birth) on land. epifaunal/benthic/dermersal, nektonic, fringing
-Lizards & Snakes – Few lizards, but many snakes aquatic, all eat animal matter; most fresh., Only a few marine (sea snakes)
-Turtles – Many aquatic; many fresh & many marine
-Crocodilians – ALL aquatic, all eat animal matter; most fresh & a few marine
-Birds – Many aquatic; many fresh & many marine (penguins = most aquatic birds)
Mammals – Important aquatic subgroups, most give birth on land. epifaunal/benthic/dermersal, nektonic, fringing
-Whales (Cetaceans) – Completely aquatic, all eat animal matter; most marine, Only a few freshwater
-Manatees & Dugongs – Completely aquatic, all eat plant matter; most enter both marine & freshwater
-Seals & Sea Lions – All aquatic , all eat animal matter; most marine, Only a few freshwater
-Otters – All aquatic, all eat animal matter; fresh & marine species
-Rodents – A few aquatic, all eat plant matter; all freshwater
Dolphins, porpoises, & other toothed whales
Planktonic larval stages are largely restricted to marine environments. Freshwater organisms are more likely to have fewer larger offspring to which they provide more care. Why?
Group open-water spawning is much less common in freshwater environments. Why?
Body sizes over 3.5 meters are largely restricted to marine environments. Why?