Energy in aquatic systems
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Energy in Aquatic Systems. Photosynthesis = Traps light energy in glucose. (= Most important.) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light → C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Chemosynthesis = Transfers chemical energy from H 2 , H 2 S, or CH 4 to energy in glucose (or another organic form)

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Energy in Aquatic Systems

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Energy in Aquatic Systems

Photosynthesis = Traps light energy in glucose. (= Most important.)

6CO2 + 6H2O + light→C6H12O6 + 6O2

Chemosynthesis = Transfers chemical energy from H2, H2S, or CH4 to energy in glucose (or another organic form)

6CO2 + 6H2O + 3H2S→C6H12O6 + 3H2SO4

Glycolysis + Cell. Respiration = Release energy in glucose in cell. useful from (ATP).

6O2+ C6H12O6→ 6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP


Energy in Aquatic Systems

  • Photosynthesis requires light and CO2.

    6CO2 + 6H2O + light→C6H12O6 + 6O2

  • Photosynthetic organisms also require nitrate (NO3-) and phosphate (PO4-) for protein synthesis = macronutrients

  • Aquatic photosynthesis most commonly is light and/or macronutrient limited.

    - Deeper = less light

    - More turbid = less light

    - Dead things and poop sink taking

    their macronutrients away from light


Organisms: Habitat Classification

  • Benthic = associated with the bottom.

  • Pelagic = in the water column.

  • Neuston = associated with the surface.

  • Fringing = associated with the terrestrial margin.

Photosynth. Org. Classification

  • Macrophytes= multicellular and

  • macroscopic photosynthetic organisms.

  • Microphytes= unicellular and filamentous

  • photosynthetic organisms.

  • Phytobacteria= photosynthetic bacteria.


Benthic Organisms

  • Epifauna = animals and protozoans attached to or on the bottom.

  • Infauna = animals and protozoans that live in the substrate.

    Photosynthetic

  • Periphyton = microphytes attached to the substrate.

  • Attached Macrophytes

  • Epiphyton/Epiphytes = microphytes attached to macrophytes.


Pelagic Organisms

  • Nekton = animals that can swim against horizontal currents.

  • Plankton = organisms that cannot swim against horizontal currents; “drift” in water column. (Size is irrelevant. E.g., Most jellyfish are planktonic.)

    Holoplankton = organisms that spend their entire lives “drifting” in the water column.

    Meroplankton = organisms that spend their early lives “drifting” in the water column.


Pelagic Organisms

  • Phytoplankton = microphytes that “drift” in the water column.

  • Floating Macrophytes

  • Epiphyton/Epiphytes = microphytes attached to macrophytes.

  • Zooplankton = animals and non-photosynthetic protozoans that “drift” in the water column (and feed on other plankton).

    Microzooplankton = non-photosynthetic protozoans (& VERY small animals) that “drift” in the water column.


Organisms in the Neuston

  • Most require very still surface water. Most are insects and mites and a very few floating larger organisms.

Organisms in Fringing Communities

  • A mixture of aquatic and terrestrial kinds of organisms.

  • Emergent macrophytes= multicellular and

  • macroscopic photosynthetic organisms that

  • emerge from the water.


Pelagic Food Web

dissolved organic

compounds (DOC)

phytoplankton

phytobacteria

bacteria

microzooplankton

grazing zooplankton

predatory zooplankton

nekton


Taxonomic: Microphytes

  • Cyanobacteria = photosynthetic bacteria; phytoplankton, periphyton/epiphyton

  • Diatoms = unicellular photosynth. eukaryotes w/glass (silica) cell walls; phytoplankton, periphyton/epiphyton

  • Dinoflagellates = unicellular photosynth. euks. with 2 flagella; phytoplankton, periphyton/epiphyton

  • Coccolithophores = unicellular photosynth. eukaryotes w/ CaCO3 “parasols”; phytoplankton


Taxonomic: “Major” Algal Groups

  • Green Algae= unicell. OR multicell. photosynth. euk. w/cellulose cell walls;phytoplankton, periphyton/epiphyton, a few macrophytes

  • Red Algae= mostly multicell. photosyn. euks. w/cellulose cell walls & red pigments;mostmacrophytes, a few periphyton/epiphyton

  • Brown Algae= mostly multicell. photosynth. euks. w/various cell walls & brown pigments;mostmacrophytes, a fewperiphyton/epiphyton


Flowering Plants

  • Multicellular photosynthetic euks. w/cellulose cell walls; common in freshwater; all macrophytes

    VERY FEW marine flowering plants.

  • Mangroves – MARINE/estuarine emergent woody

  • Spartina(saltmarsh grass)– saltmarsh emergent and fringing

  • Eel/sea grass –

    MARINE

    submerged


Solely Aquatic Phyla

  • Sponges – soft, calcareous, and glass sponges; most marine; all epifaunal

  • Cnidarians – jellyfish, sea anemones, corals; most marine; many planktonic, a few nektonic, many epifaunal, a few infaunal

  • Echinoderms – starfishes, sea urchins, sea cucumbers, & sea lillies; ALL marine; most epifaunal, a few infaunal


“Worms”

  • Annelids (segmented worms) –leeches, earthworms, polychaete, & tube worms; freshwater and marine;epifaunal, infaunal

  • Nematodes(roundworms) – most microscopic; freshwater and marine; a few planktonic, most epifaunal or infaunal, many parasitic

  • Platyhelminths(flatworms) –planarians, tapeworms, & flukes; freshwater and marine; many epifaunal, many parasitic


Mollusks

  • Bivalves – clams, oysters, mussels, & scallops; freshwater & marine; meroplanktonic marine larvae, epifaunal, infaunal, fringing

  • Gastropods – snails and slugs; freshwater and marine; meroplanktonicmarine larvae, epifaunal, infaunal, fringing

  • Cephalopods – squid, octopus, & cuttlefish; all active visual predators; all marine; many nektonic, many epifaunal


Arthropods: Insects

  • Insects – aquatic insect adults & (especially) larvae very common & important in freshwater environments; planktonic, nektonic, epifaunal, infaunal, neustonic, fringing

    aquatic insectsrare in marine environments, all adults;

    neustonic or fringing


Arthropods: Crustaceans

  • Decapods – lobsters, shrimps, & crabs; “usually” have 5 pair large legs; freshwater & marine; meroplanktonic marine larvae, nektonic, epifaunal, infaunal, fringing

  • Isopods – woodlice, fish lice, “isopods”; “usually” have >5 pair large legs; flattened top-bottom; freshwater & marine; epifaunal, infaunal, fringing, a few ectoparasites

  • Amphipods – scuds, “amphipods”; “usually” have >5 pair large legs; flattened side-to-side; freshwater & marine; a few nektonic, epifaunal, infaunal


Decapods-Isopods-Amphipods


Arthropods: “Micro”-Crustaceans

  • Copepods – copepods (= “plankton” on Sponge Bob); “usually” have 1 eye & swim with enlarged antennae; marine & fresh.; planktonic, a few nektonic, a few epifaunal

  • Euphausiids – krill; generally resemble decapod shrimps & swim with all their legs; most marine; planktonic, a few nektonic, a few epifaunal

  • Cladocerans – water fleas; many legs under a covering shell & swim with enlarged antennae; most freshwater; planktonic


Copepods-Euphausiids-Cladocerans


Vertebrates: Chondricthyans

  • Chondrichthyans – sharks, sting rays, skates, & chimaeras; have cartilaginous skeleton, all consume animal matter; marine & a very few fresh.; nektonic, epifaunal/benthic/dermersal


Vertebrates: Actinopterygiians

Actinopterygiians – most “bony” fishes; have bony skeleton, incredibly diverse; very many marine & very many fresh.; nektonic, epifaunal/benthic/dermersal

Teleosts = most species of actinopterygiians


Vertebrates: Amphibians

Amphibians – frogs, salamanders, newts, & caecilians; most have aquatic larvae & some adults remain aquatic, all eat animal matter; all fresh., NO marine; epifaunal/benthic/dermersal, fringing


Vertebrates: Reptiles

Reptiles – Important aquatic subgroups, but ALL must lay eggs (or give birth) on land. epifaunal/benthic/dermersal, nektonic, fringing

-Lizards & Snakes – Few lizards, but many snakes aquatic, all eat animal matter; most fresh., Only a few marine (sea snakes)

-Turtles – Many aquatic; many fresh & many marine

-Crocodilians – ALL aquatic, all eat animal matter; most fresh & a few marine

-Birds – Many aquatic; many fresh & many marine (penguins = most aquatic birds)


Vertebrates: Mammals

Mammals – Important aquatic subgroups, most give birth on land. epifaunal/benthic/dermersal, nektonic, fringing

-Whales (Cetaceans) – Completely aquatic, all eat animal matter; most marine, Only a few freshwater

-Manatees & Dugongs – Completely aquatic, all eat plant matter; most enter both marine & freshwater

-Seals & Sea Lions – All aquatic , all eat animal matter; most marine, Only a few freshwater

-Otters – All aquatic, all eat animal matter; fresh & marine species

-Rodents – A few aquatic, all eat plant matter; all freshwater


Cetaceans

Baleen Whales

Toothed Whales

Sperm Whales

Dolphins, porpoises, & other toothed whales


Freshwater-vs.-Marine

Larval Stage

Planktonic larval stages are largely restricted to marine environments. Freshwater organisms are more likely to have fewer larger offspring to which they provide more care. Why?

Spawning

Group open-water spawning is much less common in freshwater environments. Why?

Size

Body sizes over 3.5 meters are largely restricted to marine environments. Why?


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