Welcome. Presentation on Computer Fundamentals & Computer Organization. Presented By:- Sunil Verma,PGT(C.S.). Objective of the topic-. To learn the About the history of the computer. To develop the knowledge about the basics of the computer. To develop the knowledge about the devices.
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Presented By:- Sunil Verma,PGT(C.S.)
WHAT IS A COMPUTER ?
Def. A computer is an electronic device that can perform a variety of operations in accordance with a set of instructions called program.
Computer can access and process data millions of times faster than humans can.
A computer can store data and information in its memory, process them and produce the desired results.
Computers can do a lot of different tasks such as playing games, railway reservation, weather forecasting, error detection and controlling the flight of a aircraft etc.
Computer is used essentially as a data processor.
The difference between data and information is :
Data Vs. Information
Data : Data in computer terminology mean raw facts and figures.
For example,’Mohan’,1977,A . Data are processed to form information.
Information : It means what we get after processing data (meaningful data).
1. Input Unit :
2. Central Processing Unit (CPU) :
(ii) ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)
(ii) Non Volatile -> Secondary Memory
(i) input devices
(iv) output devices
(v) storage devices
(i) Operating System
(ii) Language Processor
(iii) Application Software
Def. An operating system is a program which acts as an interface between a user and the hardware.
1. The Hardware
2. The Operating System
3. The Application Program routines (compilers, linkers, database management systems, utility programs)
4. The Human ware (users)
The operating systems perform the following functions :
Types of OSs : single user OS, multiuser OS, batch processing OS, multiprocessing OS etc.Language Processors :-> Programmer’s language is HLL and computer does not understand it.->So it is require to convert HLL in to machine language. Software which does this is know as Language Processors.-> (i) Assembler : It converts the program written in assembly language into machine language.-> (ii) Interpreter : It converts a HLL program into machine language by converting and executing it line by line. If there is any error in any line, it reports it at the same time and program execution can not resume until the error is rectified.
(iii) Compiler :
1. Customized Application Software : processing OS, multiprocessing OS etc.
2. General Application Software :
Strengths and Weakness of a Computer :
Live ware :
quite unknowingly laid the foundation of the computer era.
They discovered the earliest form of a bead-and-wire
counting machine, which subsequently came to be known
Napier’s ‘Logs’ and ‘Bones’ :
Pascal’s Adding Machine :
consisted of numbered
toothed wheels having
unique position values. The
rotation of wheels
controlled the addition and
Gottfried Leibnitz, a German Mathematician,
improved an adding machine and
constructed a new machine in 1671 that was
able to perform multiplication and division
as well. This machine performed
multiplication through repeated addition of
Charles Babbage. A professor of mathematics, developed a machine called Difference Engine in the year 1822.
This machine was expected to calculate logarithmic tables to a high degree of precision. It was made to calculate various mathematical functions.
1. ENIAC : (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator) concept of central processor,
2. EDVAC : (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer)
3. EDSAC : (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer)
4. UNIVEC – I : (Universal Automatic Computer – I)
Some second generation computers : concept of central processor,
The computers have been classified into three categories.
1. Digital Computers 2. Analog Computers 3. Hybrid Computers
Digital Analog Hybrid
Purpose-Wise Size and Performance Wise
Special Purpose General Purpose Embedded Micro Mini Mainframes Super
Programmable Laptop Workstations
(i) Purpose wise Digital Computers : Classified in to two ways
1. Special-purpose Computer : It is designed to perform a specific task.
-> The instructions to carry out task are permanently stored in the machine.
-> Computers are not versatile.
2. General Purpose Computer : It can work on different types of programs input to it and so used in countless applications.
-> Programs are not permanentaly stored but are input at the time of execution.
-> Computers are versatile.
(ii) Size and performance wise Digital Computers :Classified in to following types
1. Embedded Computers : Exist in a wide range of sizes and power.
-> The smallest are embedded within the circuitry of appliances, such as televisions, washing machines and wrist watches.
-> Programmed for a specific task.
2. Microcomputers : It is a computer whose CPU is a microprocessor.
-> Microprocessor is a processor whose all components are on a single integrated – circuit chip.
-> Normally used in offices, homes, schools, shops, stores etc.
Three categories of Microcomputers :
(i) PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants) :
(ii) Laptop (Notebook) Computers and Desktop Personal Computers (PCs) :
(iii) Workstations :
3. Minicomputers :
4. Mainframe Computers :
5. Super Computers : micro comp.