Setting the stage turn of the 20 th century
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Setting the Stage: Turn of the 20 th Century . Industrial Revolution and Imperialism . Journal:. Why study history? What tools do we use to study history? . 20 th century began with great promise . Technology, inventions Wright Brothers, 1903 Edison, Ford Science Darwin, Mendel,

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Setting the Stage: Turn of the 20 th Century

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Setting the stage turn of the 20 th century

Setting the Stage:Turn of the 20th Century

Industrial Revolution and Imperialism



  • Why study history? What tools do we use to study history?

20 th century began with great promise

20th century began with great promise

  • Technology, inventions

    • Wright Brothers, 1903

    • Edison, Ford

  • Science

    • Darwin, Mendel,

      Marie Curie, Freud

  • Mass culture and entertainment



  • One of the deadliest centuries in human history

    • Some stats:

      • About 180 million people killed from war in the 20th century

    • Genocide, nuclear threats

  • Contradiction between this and greater democratization and human rights

Three major themes ideas

Three Major Themes/Ideas

  • Industrialization: Growth of industries for the machine production of goods

  • Nationalism: Belief in loyalty to one’s nation (people with a shared culture and history)

  • Imperialism: Strong nations dominating weaker nations politically, economically, or socially



  • Does technology and machinery improve or worsen our lives? Why? Defend your answer.



  • Look at the map on pg. 281:

    • Which countries do you think industrialized first?

    • Why? What factors lead to industrialization?

The industrial revolution

The Industrial Revolution

  • Why a revolution?

  • Began in England in the 1700’s

    • Agriculture: Enclosures

      • Improved farming techniques

      • Movement to cities (urbanization)

    • Industrialization

      • Machine mass production of goods

      • Requires land, labor, capital, and natural resources

      • Good economy (banking) and political stability

    • Textile production from new inventions

    • Improvements in transportation

      • Steam driven trains on railroads (1830’s)

Progress and plight

Progress and Plight

  • Urbanization: Growth of cities

    • Factories near water sources

  • Working class:

    • Poor living conditions

    • Poor working conditions

  • Growth of the middle class

  • Long-term effects:

    • Improved standard of living, access to consumer goods

Spread of industrialization

Spread of Industrialization

  • Spreads to U.S., Germany, France

  • Gap between industrialized and nonindustrialized countries leads to imperialism

    • Need for raw materials

    • Potential markets for products

  • Long-term:

    • Longer lifespans, better health, greater wealth in industrialized nations

    • Growth of a middle class leads to increased participation in democracy and social reforms





  • Unionization

    • Collective bargaining

    • Strikes

  • Child labor laws

  • Abolition of slavery

  • Women’s rights

  • Education

Journal 3

Journal #3

It was said that…

“The Sun Never Sets On the British Empire”

What do you know about the British Empire?

Take a guess: what do you think this quote means?

Hint: Look at the map on pg. 337 of your textbook

British empire at the height of its power

British Empire at the Height of its Power


¼ of world’s pop.

Rule britannia

Rule, Britannia!

Rule Britannia!

Britannia rule the waves

Britons never, never, never shall be slaves.

Rule Britannia!

Britannia rule the waves.

Britons never, never, never shall be slaves.

Imperialism essential questions

Imperialism: Essential Questions

  • What were the motives of the colonizers?

  • How did the imperialists control and manage their colonies?

  • What were the effects of imperialism?

  • How did Japan end its isolation and begin to modernize?

Journal 4

Journal #4

  • If you wanted to control someone smaller or weaker than you, how could you do it? What methods might you use?

  • What might happen to them after you have dominated their lives?

  • Is this ever morally justified?

Forms of control

Forms of control

  • The Name of the Game: Empire Building

  • Types of imperialism:

    • Colony: Foreign power governs

    • Protectorate: Foreign power controls government

    • Sphere of influence: Foreign power has trade privileges

    • Economic Imperialism: Foreign business controls econ.

  • Forms of control:

    • Direct: No self-rule, no local leaders in government

    • Indirect: Limited self-rule of local leaders



  • African resistance: Zulus and British

  • Europeans: Boers, British, and Africans in South Africa

  • Boer War: British won

  • Limited control (British) vs. direct control (French)

  • Legacy: Positive and Negative Consequences

    • Political divisions, artificial boundaries

    • Breakdown of family, culture

    • Loss of land, disease, deaths from rebellions

    • Economic expansion



  • Racism

  • Social Darwinism

  • Paternalism

  • Assimilation

  • Directions: Choose a vocabulary word above and complete the Frayer Model graphic organizer

Scramble for africa

Scramble for Africa

  • Imperialism: Seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country

  • Belgium takes the Congo (1880’s)

  • How?

    • Steamboats and maxim gun

    • Quinine to combat malaria

    • Exploiting diversity of African groups

  • Berlin Conference (1884-85)

Africa before and after

Africa Before and After

c. 1914


Berlin conference simulation

Berlin Conference Simulation

  • Order for choosing territory:

    • 1. Portugal

    • 2. Spain

    • 3. Britain

    • 4. France

    • 5. Belgium

    • 6. Germany

    • 7. Italy

Journal 5

Journal #5

  • How successful do you believe your country will be in achieving your goals at today’s Berlin Conference? Explain.

Journal 6 where in the world

Journal #6: Where in the World?

  • Guess the country! Explain your guess.

  • Clues:

    • The world’s largest democracy

    • Main religions:

      • Hindus (80%)

      • Muslims (13%)

      • Other (Christian, Sikh): 7%

    • 16 official languages, including English

    • Capital city is New Delhi

    • Raise your hand if you would like one extra hint!

Answer india

Answer: India

Europeans in the middle east

Europeans in the Middle East

  • Decline of the Ottoman Empire

  • Geopolitics: Taking strategically located land

  • Crimean War: Britain, France, Ottomans prevent Russia from taking Black Sea territory

  • “Great Game” between Britain and Russia over Afghanistan

  • Egypt modernizes: Suez Canal leads to British control of Egypt

  • Russian, British spheres of interest in Persia—for oil

Southeast asia

Southeast Asia

  • Dutch East India Company in Indonesia

    • Rubber plantations and other cash crops

  • British in Malaysia

  • French in Indochina (Vietnam)

    • Rice production

  • Siam (Thailand) remained independent

    • King Mongkut plays France and Britain and modernizes

  • US in the Philippines, Hawaii (interest in sugar)

    • Hawaii annexed in 1898

Imperialism in india

Imperialism in India

  • Decline of Mughal Empire in the 1700s

    • British make deals with maharajahs

  • British East India Company sets up trading posts

    • Cash crops: Tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, and opium to trade with China (for tea)

  • “Jewel in the crown” of colonies

    • What does this mean?

  • Decline in local handloom textile industry

Sepoy rebellion 1857

Sepoy Rebellion (1857)

  • Sepoy Mutiny/India’s First War of Independenceled to the Raj (direct British government control)

    • Sepoys: Indian soldiers

    • Upset by a rumor that new cartridges for rifles would use cow and pig fat

  • Problem for the rebellion: the division between Hindus and Muslims

  • Film Study: Mangel Pandey, The Rising


Questions for viewing the film

Questions for viewing the film

  • 1. Why is MangalPandey considered India’s first national hero?

  • 2. What does MangalPandey mean when he says, “We are all untouchables in our own land”?

    • Untouchables: Lowest caste of Indian society

  • 3. What does Captain William Gordon warn will happen if the British execute MangalPandey?

Journal 7

Journal #7

  • Do you think that there are any countries that are imperialistic today? Why or why not?

Japanese imperialism

Japanese Imperialism

  • Europeans were not the only imperialists

  • Matthew Perry and the Treaty of Kanagawa (1854) ends Japanese isolation and opens ports for trade

  • Meiji emperor modernizes the country

    • Industry, education, military buildup

  • Becomes the strongest military power in Asia and sought to control neighbors, especially Korea



  • Sino-Japanese War (1895):

    • Japan vs. China in Korea

    • Results:

      • Japan drives Chinese out of Korea, gains land in Manchuria

      • Gains colonies in Taiwan

    • Russo-Japanese War (1905):

      • Japan vs. Russia in Manchuria and Korea

      • Results:

        • Japan drives Russia out of Korea and holds Manchuria

Japan in korea

Japan in Korea

  • 1905: Made Korea a protectorate

  • 1910: Annexed Korea, bringing them officially under Japan’s control

  • Forced Koreans to assimilate to Japanese culture

  • Unfair treatment of Koreans leads to a strong nationalist movement

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