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Setting the Stage: Turn of the 20 th Century . Industrial Revolution and Imperialism . Journal:. Why study history? What tools do we use to study history? . 20 th century began with great promise . Technology, inventions Wright Brothers, 1903 Edison, Ford Science Darwin, Mendel,

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Setting the Stage: Turn of the 20 th Century

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Setting the Stage:Turn of the 20th Century

Industrial Revolution and Imperialism


  • Why study history? What tools do we use to study history?

20th century began with great promise

  • Technology, inventions

    • Wright Brothers, 1903

    • Edison, Ford

  • Science

    • Darwin, Mendel,

      Marie Curie, Freud

  • Mass culture and entertainment


  • One of the deadliest centuries in human history

    • Some stats:

      • About 180 million people killed from war in the 20th century

    • Genocide, nuclear threats

  • Contradiction between this and greater democratization and human rights

Three Major Themes/Ideas

  • Industrialization: Growth of industries for the machine production of goods

  • Nationalism: Belief in loyalty to one’s nation (people with a shared culture and history)

  • Imperialism: Strong nations dominating weaker nations politically, economically, or socially


  • Does technology and machinery improve or worsen our lives? Why? Defend your answer.


  • Look at the map on pg. 281:

    • Which countries do you think industrialized first?

    • Why? What factors lead to industrialization?

The Industrial Revolution

  • Why a revolution?

  • Began in England in the 1700’s

    • Agriculture: Enclosures

      • Improved farming techniques

      • Movement to cities (urbanization)

    • Industrialization

      • Machine mass production of goods

      • Requires land, labor, capital, and natural resources

      • Good economy (banking) and political stability

    • Textile production from new inventions

    • Improvements in transportation

      • Steam driven trains on railroads (1830’s)

Progress and Plight

  • Urbanization: Growth of cities

    • Factories near water sources

  • Working class:

    • Poor living conditions

    • Poor working conditions

  • Growth of the middle class

  • Long-term effects:

    • Improved standard of living, access to consumer goods

Spread of Industrialization

  • Spreads to U.S., Germany, France

  • Gap between industrialized and nonindustrialized countries leads to imperialism

    • Need for raw materials

    • Potential markets for products

  • Long-term:

    • Longer lifespans, better health, greater wealth in industrialized nations

    • Growth of a middle class leads to increased participation in democracy and social reforms



  • Unionization

    • Collective bargaining

    • Strikes

  • Child labor laws

  • Abolition of slavery

  • Women’s rights

  • Education

Journal #3

It was said that…

“The Sun Never Sets On the British Empire”

What do you know about the British Empire?

Take a guess: what do you think this quote means?

Hint: Look at the map on pg. 337 of your textbook

British Empire at the Height of its Power


¼ of world’s pop.

Rule, Britannia!

Rule Britannia!

Britannia rule the waves

Britons never, never, never shall be slaves.

Rule Britannia!

Britannia rule the waves.

Britons never, never, never shall be slaves.

Imperialism: Essential Questions

  • What were the motives of the colonizers?

  • How did the imperialists control and manage their colonies?

  • What were the effects of imperialism?

  • How did Japan end its isolation and begin to modernize?

Journal #4

  • If you wanted to control someone smaller or weaker than you, how could you do it? What methods might you use?

  • What might happen to them after you have dominated their lives?

  • Is this ever morally justified?

Forms of control

  • The Name of the Game: Empire Building

  • Types of imperialism:

    • Colony: Foreign power governs

    • Protectorate: Foreign power controls government

    • Sphere of influence: Foreign power has trade privileges

    • Economic Imperialism: Foreign business controls econ.

  • Forms of control:

    • Direct: No self-rule, no local leaders in government

    • Indirect: Limited self-rule of local leaders


  • African resistance: Zulus and British

  • Europeans: Boers, British, and Africans in South Africa

  • Boer War: British won

  • Limited control (British) vs. direct control (French)

  • Legacy: Positive and Negative Consequences

    • Political divisions, artificial boundaries

    • Breakdown of family, culture

    • Loss of land, disease, deaths from rebellions

    • Economic expansion


  • Racism

  • Social Darwinism

  • Paternalism

  • Assimilation

  • Directions: Choose a vocabulary word above and complete the Frayer Model graphic organizer

Scramble for Africa

  • Imperialism: Seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country

  • Belgium takes the Congo (1880’s)

  • How?

    • Steamboats and maxim gun

    • Quinine to combat malaria

    • Exploiting diversity of African groups

  • Berlin Conference (1884-85)

Africa Before and After

c. 1914


Berlin Conference Simulation

  • Order for choosing territory:

    • 1. Portugal

    • 2. Spain

    • 3. Britain

    • 4. France

    • 5. Belgium

    • 6. Germany

    • 7. Italy

Journal #5

  • How successful do you believe your country will be in achieving your goals at today’s Berlin Conference? Explain.

Journal #6: Where in the World?

  • Guess the country! Explain your guess.

  • Clues:

    • The world’s largest democracy

    • Main religions:

      • Hindus (80%)

      • Muslims (13%)

      • Other (Christian, Sikh): 7%

    • 16 official languages, including English

    • Capital city is New Delhi

    • Raise your hand if you would like one extra hint!

Answer: India

Europeans in the Middle East

  • Decline of the Ottoman Empire

  • Geopolitics: Taking strategically located land

  • Crimean War: Britain, France, Ottomans prevent Russia from taking Black Sea territory

  • “Great Game” between Britain and Russia over Afghanistan

  • Egypt modernizes: Suez Canal leads to British control of Egypt

  • Russian, British spheres of interest in Persia—for oil

Southeast Asia

  • Dutch East India Company in Indonesia

    • Rubber plantations and other cash crops

  • British in Malaysia

  • French in Indochina (Vietnam)

    • Rice production

  • Siam (Thailand) remained independent

    • King Mongkut plays France and Britain and modernizes

  • US in the Philippines, Hawaii (interest in sugar)

    • Hawaii annexed in 1898

Imperialism in India

  • Decline of Mughal Empire in the 1700s

    • British make deals with maharajahs

  • British East India Company sets up trading posts

    • Cash crops: Tea, indigo, coffee, cotton, and opium to trade with China (for tea)

  • “Jewel in the crown” of colonies

    • What does this mean?

  • Decline in local handloom textile industry

Sepoy Rebellion (1857)

  • Sepoy Mutiny/India’s First War of Independenceled to the Raj (direct British government control)

    • Sepoys: Indian soldiers

    • Upset by a rumor that new cartridges for rifles would use cow and pig fat

  • Problem for the rebellion: the division between Hindus and Muslims

  • Film Study: Mangel Pandey, The Rising


Questions for viewing the film

  • 1. Why is MangalPandey considered India’s first national hero?

  • 2. What does MangalPandey mean when he says, “We are all untouchables in our own land”?

    • Untouchables: Lowest caste of Indian society

  • 3. What does Captain William Gordon warn will happen if the British execute MangalPandey?

Journal #7

  • Do you think that there are any countries that are imperialistic today? Why or why not?

Japanese Imperialism

  • Europeans were not the only imperialists

  • Matthew Perry and the Treaty of Kanagawa (1854) ends Japanese isolation and opens ports for trade

  • Meiji emperor modernizes the country

    • Industry, education, military buildup

  • Becomes the strongest military power in Asia and sought to control neighbors, especially Korea


  • Sino-Japanese War (1895):

    • Japan vs. China in Korea

    • Results:

      • Japan drives Chinese out of Korea, gains land in Manchuria

      • Gains colonies in Taiwan

    • Russo-Japanese War (1905):

      • Japan vs. Russia in Manchuria and Korea

      • Results:

        • Japan drives Russia out of Korea and holds Manchuria

Japan in Korea

  • 1905: Made Korea a protectorate

  • 1910: Annexed Korea, bringing them officially under Japan’s control

  • Forced Koreans to assimilate to Japanese culture

  • Unfair treatment of Koreans leads to a strong nationalist movement

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