The Circulatory or Cardiovascular System
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The Circulatory or Cardiovascular System. Figure 11.1. Cardiovascular System. Components (parts) Pump (heart) Interconnected series of tubes that continually move blood throughout the body Arteries & Arterioles (smaller arteries) Veins & Venules (smaller veins) Capillaries Blood

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The circulatory or cardiovascular system

The Circulatory or Cardiovascular System

Figure 11.1


Cardiovascular system

Cardiovascular System

  • Components (parts)

    • Pump (heart)

    • Interconnected series of tubes that continually move blood throughout the body

      • Arteries & Arterioles (smaller arteries)

      • Veins & Venules (smaller veins)

      • Capillaries

    • Blood

      • Red and White Blood Cells

      • Plasma (fluid)

      • Platelets

      • Nutrients and Waste

      • Hormones


Cardiovascular function

  • A closed system( no blood cells leak out into tissues) of the heart and blood vessels.

    • The heart pumps blood.

    • Blood vessels allow blood to circulate to all parts of the body.

  • Distributesoxygen, nutrients, heat, antibodies, and hormones; and to remove carbon dioxide and other waste products for all the tissues of the body.

Cardiovascular Function:


Blood

Blood

  • Pumped by your heart.

  • Blood is the actual carrier of the oxygen and nutrients.

  • Travels through thousands of miles of blood vessels

  • Redistributes body heat. Helps keep your body at the right temperature.

  • Blood carries oxygen from the lungs and nutrients from the digestive tract to the body’s cells. It also carries away carbon dioxide and all of  the waste products that the body does not need. (The kidneys filter and clean the blood.)

  • Blood also carries hormones to the body’s cells


Blood1

BLOOD


The cardiovascular system

The Cardiovascular System

  • Blood is actually a tissue. It is thick because it is made up of a variety of cells, each having a different job. In fact, blood is actually about 80% water and 20% solid.

  • Fifty-five percent is plasma (liquid).

  • Forty-five percent is solid (cells & platelets).


Blood2

Blood

  • Blood is a type of connective tissue.

  • Blood cells are made primarily in your large bones and spleen.

  • The average man has between 10 and 12 pints (4-6 liters) of blood in his body. The average woman has between 8 and 9 pints.


Bone marrow stem cells

Bone Marrow Stem Cells

  • A stem cell is capable of dividing into new cells that differentiate into particular cell types.

  • Bone marrow is multipotent, able to continually give rise to particular types of blood cells.


Blood cell formation in red bone marrow

Blood cell formation in red bone marrow


Plasma

Plasma

  • Blood is made mostly of plasma which is a yellowish liquid that is 90% water. Plasma is a complex mixture of water, gases, and various proteins, fats, salts, & sugars. Plasma is made in the liver.

  • Contains clotting factors to help the blood to clot and the body’s tissues to heal


Plasma1

Plasma

  • Plasma accounts for 55% and formed elements 45% of blood volume.

  • Plasma contains mostly water (90–92%) and plasma proteins (7–8%), but it also contains nutrients and wastes.

  • Albumin is a large plasma protein that transports bilirubin; globulins are plasma proteins that transport lipoproteins.


The circulatory or cardiovascular system

user.gru.net/clawrence/ vccl/chpt7/plate.htm


The circulatory or cardiovascular system

Red Blood Cells

  • Red blood cells are the most plentiful. In fact, a healthy adult has about 35 trillion of them. The body creates these cells at a rate of about 2.4 million a second.

  • Red blood cells are also called erythrocytes.

  • About 5,000,000 Red Blood Cells in ONE drop of blood (very small). Their shape is a biconcave disc that is round and flat.

  • Red blood cells lack a nucleus and have a 120 day life span. When worn out, the red blood cells are dismantled in the liver and spleen.

http://hes.ucf.k12.pa.us/gclaypo/circdia.html


Red blood cells

Red Blood Cells

  • Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body. Takes carbon dioxide and transports it back to the lungs.

  • Hemeglobin is the protein that allows this to happen.


Physiology of red blood cells

Physiology of red blood cells


The circulatory or cardiovascular system

Iron is reused by the red bone marrow where stem cells continually produce more red blood cells.

Lack of enough hemoglobin results in anemia.

The kidneys produce the hormone erythropoietin to increase blood cell production when oxygen levels are low.

Red Blood Cells


White blood cells

White Blood Cells

White blood cells, which ward off infection. These cells, which come in many shapes and sizes, are vital to the immune system. When the body is fighting off infection, it makes them in ever-increasing numbers.

  • They have nuclei, are fewer in number than RBCs, with 5,000 – 10,000 cells per mm3. Most healthy adults have about 700 times as many red blood cells as white ones.

  • White blood cells are also called leukocytes.

scienceu.fsu.edu


The white blood cells

The White Blood Cells

White blood cells protect the body from germs (bacteria and viruses) by attacking them either directly or by sending antibodies 9sticky proteins that trap them.


White blood cells1

White Blood Cells

  • Leukocytes – 5 types of white blood cells protect against disease.

    • Basophils.

    • Eosinophils.

    • Neutrophils.

    • Lymphocytes.

    • Monocytes.

  • Leukocytes are divided into granular and agranular based on appearance.

  • Granular leukocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) contain enzymes and proteins that defend the body against microbes.

www.merck.com/pubs/mmanual_home/ illus/167i2.htm


Macrophage engulfing bacteria

Macrophage engulfing bacteria


The cardiovascular system1

The Cardiovascular System

  • Blood Types

    • Common blood types are O, A, B, and AB.

    • Rh-factor is a type of antigen (cell membrane protein) that causes the body to produce antibodies.

      • Rh+ means the Rh factor is present.

      • Rh– means the Rh factor is not present.


Blood types

Blood Types

  • The two genes determine your blood type by causing proteins called agglutinogens (a-GLOO-tin-a-gins) to exist on the surface of all of your red blood cells which gives them a certain identification pattern and way of interacting with other cells.


Blood type rhesus monkey factor

Blood Type: Rhesus Monkey Factor

  • Rh Factor is another blood type and set of alleles. If your blood does contain the protein, your blood is said to be Rh positive (Rh+). If your blood does not contain the protein, your blood is said to be Rh negative (Rh-).

  • For example, your blood may be AB+ which means that you have type AB blood with a positive Rh factor.


Blood types1

Blood types

  • There are 4 different blood types: A, B, AB, and O. Genes that you inherit from your parents (1 from your mother and 1 from your father) determine your blood type.

  • In blood transfusions, the donor and recipient blood types must be compatible. People with type O blood are called universal donors, because they can donate blood to anyone, but they can only receive a transfusion from other people with type O blood.


There are two special genotypes when it comes to blood transfusions oo and ab

There are two special genotypes when it comes to blood transfusions: OO and AB.

  • People with O blood are said to be universal donors because they can donate blood to everybody. However, people with type O blood can only receive transfusions from other type O donors.

  • People with AB blood are said to be universal recipients because they can receive blood from people with all four blood types.


The circulatory or cardiovascular system

If your blood type is . . .


Platelets

Platelets

  • Platelets, which help the blood to clot (stop bleeding). Clotting stops the blood from flowing out of the blood vessels.

  • Platelets are also called thrombocytes.

  • Red bone marrow produces large

  • cells called megakaryocytes that

  • fragment into platelets at a rate of 200

  • billion per day; blood contains

  • 150,000–300,000 platelets per mm3.

  • Twelve clotting factors in the blood

  • help platelets form blood clots.

http://hes.ucf.k12.pa.us/gclaypo/circdia.html


Blood clotting

Blood Clotting

  • Clotting is important to stop the bleeding or leaking or blood cells from vessels (hemorrhaging).

  • Injured tissues release a clotting factor called prothrombin activator, which converts prothrombin into thrombin.

  • Thrombin, in turn, acts as an enzyme and converts fibrinogen into insoluble threads of fibrin with the help of calcium ions (Ca2+). Fibrin lashes down the platelets.


Blood clotting1

Blood clotting


Dissolving blood clots

Dissolving Blood Clots

  • Medical treatments for dissolving blood clots inside of vessels which slows or blocks the movement of blood include use of t-PA (tissue plasminogen activator) that converts plasminogen into plasmin, an enzyme that dissolves blood clots, but can cause brain bleeding.

  • Aspirin reduces the stickiness of platelets and reduces clot formation and lowers the risk of heart attack.


Hemophilia

Hemophilia

  • Hemophilia is an inherited clotting disorder due to a deficiency in a clotting factor.

  • Bumps and falls cause bleeding in the joints; cartilage degeneration and reabsorption of bone can follow.

  • The most frequent cause of death is bleeding into the brain with accompanying neurological damage.


Blood tests and cardiovascular conditions

Blood tests and cardiovascular conditions

  • A complete blood count (CBC) is one of the most common blood tests. It is usually done as part of a routine checkup and can help detect a number of blood disorders, such as anemia, infections, clotting problems, blood cancers, and immune system problems.

  • A CBC test measures many different parts of your blood, including the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. It also measures the hemoglobin (iron) levels in your blood and your hematocrit, which is how much space your red blood cells take up in your blood.

  • Another part of a CBC test is the mean corpuscular volume, which is a measure of the average size of your red blood cells. Specific blood tests can be performed to see if there is a problem with your heart, lungs, or blood vessels.


Blood tests

Blood Tests

  • Cardiac enzyme tests, which measure the cardiac enzyme levels in the blood. Certain enzymes will be present if the heart muscle (myocardium) has been damaged by a heart attack, because damaged heart cells release these enzymes into the blood. The most common cardiac enzyme that is released is creatine kinase.

  • Troponin tests, which measure the amount of troponin (a type of protein) in the blood. Troponin affects how the heart muscle contracts. If there are high levels of troponin in the blood (troponin T or troponin I), there is most likely damage to the heart muscle. The amount of troponin released into the blood correlates with the degree of damage to the heart muscle.

  • Arterial blood gas studies, which measure how well the blood is being oxygenated in the lungs.

  • Lipoprotein (cholesterol) profile, which measures how much fat or lipid is in the blood.

  • Blood cultures, which can be used to determine if there are microorganisms (like the bacteria that causes endocarditis) in the body’s system. After the blood is drawn, it is placed on a culture, which helps the bacteria grow. The bacteria is then analyzed to determine what type it is and what medicines can be used to kill it.

  • Blood clotting tests, which measure the blood’s ability to clot. Clotting stops the blood from flowing out of the body when a vein or artery is broken.


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